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Chapter 18 Renewing The Sectional Struggle (1848-1854)
Transcript of Chapter 18 Renewing The Sectional Struggle (1848-1854)
Renewing The Sectional Struggle
(1848-1854) OBJECTIVES :) 1. Explain how the issue of slavery in the territories acquired from Mexico disrupted American politics from 1848 to1850.
2. Point out the major terms of the Compromise of 1850 and indicate how this agreement attempted to defuse the sectional crisis over slavery.
3. Explain why the Fugitive Slave Law included in the Compromise of 1850 stirred moral outrage and fueled antislavery agitation in the North. Kimberly Medina New and Perilous round of political warfare had begun right after the war had ended with Mexico
The two great political parties were both a vital bond of national unity
To many politicians their strategies were to seem concerned about slavery issues and ignored the real problems of slavery
Democrats were forced to look for a new leader because president Polk wasn't in good health
The Democratic National Convention turned to a veteran of 1812 named General Lewis Cass
General Cass's ideas on slavery where very well known
He was the reputed father of Popular Sovereignty
Many liked Sovereignty because it had a very persuasive appeal it was liked by democrats and many politicians The Popular Sovereignty Panacea Whigs were catching a political thing called "Taylor Fever"
Nominations were given to Frank and Zachary Taylor
Clay was suppose to be nominated but had to many enemies
Whigs were always eager to win and would talk about handling the issues that only the public where interested in
Antislavery men disliked Cass and Taylor
Created the Free Soil Party
Conscious Whigs where heavily abolitionist crusade
Free soilers wanted freedom for all and didn't focus mostly on the enslavement of blacks Political Triumphs For General Taylor "Californy Gold" President Taylor wasn't the most persuasive person but he did manage to keep slavery under people
As soon as gold was discovered, there wasn't much he could really do
The gold fever was mostly followed with more deathly fevers because of the amount of effort it took to even look for gold
Many made off money of the miners because they got a large profit
Many crimes began to pop up as many new people came just for gold
President taylor drafted a consitution that excluded slavery this would block free soil Sectional Balance and The Underground Railroad In the white house was Zachary Taylor, A war hero
Cotton fiels were expanding and prices were also going up
There were fifteen slave states who could veto any proposed constitutional amendment which wasn't good for the blacks
Agitation had developed in some states for being nonslave states
Many southerners were mad that the constant nagging in the north for abolition of slaveryin the district of Columbia
The Underground Railroad came to be, South would harshly punish the runaway slaves if caught Fears were that congress would be confronted with problems
Trouble for the congress would mean the failure of the United States as a country
Henry Clay became know as "The Compromiser"
He was able to elegantly look good and skillfully defend the compromises he proposed
Stephen A. Douglas became know as the "Little Giant"
Clay was able to persuade the North and South both make concessions and that the North partially tiled by enacting a more feasible fugitive-slave law
Although they approved the purpose of Clay’s proposed concessions, Calhoun rejected them as not providing adequate safeguards Twilight Of The Senatorial Giants Deadlock and Danger on Capitol Hill President Taylor unknowingly helped the cause of concession by dying suddenly
Vice President Millard Fillmore, a conciliatory New York lawyer-politician took over
He gladly signed the series of compromise measures that passed Congress after seven long months of stormy debate
The struggle to get these measures accepted by the country was hardly less heated than in Congress
Fillmore was smart when it came to handling touchy issues which calmed the citizens down Breaking the Congressional Logjam The North got the better deal in the compromise of 1850
California was a free state and this messed with the senate balance against the south
Because of popular sovereignty slavery was now open to the territories of New Mexico and Utah
The state with most slaves was texas
South had stopped the abolition of slaves again in the district of Columbia
The federal commissioner who handled the case of a fugitive would receive five dollars if the runaway were freed and ten dollars if not
The Fugitive Slave law was an appalling blunder on the part of the South Balancing the Compromise Scales The decomcratic nominating convention of baltimore of 1852 startled the nation
The unrenowed lawyer/ politician became know, his name was Franklin Pierce
Some names used for him was "The Young Hickory of the Granite Hills
The Whigs, also convening in Baltimore, missed a splendid opportunity to capitalize on their record in statecraft
Winfield Scott was called the best general in his generation
The Whig platform praised the Compromise of 1850 as a lasting arrangement
Many disliked him for his way of being and handling issues Defeat and Doom for the Whigs Mexican war was won which was a very big achievement
More gold in California was discovered nine days prior to the war ending
If anyone where to ever control the routes to the two american continents they would could control the route to imperial sway over maritame nations
route was extremely important
The british seizure of the port of San Juan led to an important treaty of 1848
Sugar rich cuba was also very enticing to annextation Expansionaist Stirrings South of the Border The Allure Of Asia Transportation problems were another legacy of the Mexican War
Sea routes were too long
Feasible land transportation was crucial to everyone
Camels were also used, they came in very handy
Railroads were also important, usually one line would suffice though
Another piece of Mexico seemed desirable again
Gadsen made gratifying headway, where he negociated a treaty in 1853
It went for 10 million and was called the Gadsden Purchase Pacific Railroad Promoters and the Gadsden Purchase In 1854 Stephen A. Douglas of of illinoise delivered a counterstroke to offset the Gadsden thrust for southern expansion westward
He invested in chigago real estate and in railroad stock
Douglas threw himself in a scheme where he would achive his goal to get the support of the south
The proposed territory of of Nebraska was split into two different territories which where Kansas and Nebraska
Douglas's scheme contradicted the Missouri Compromise of 1820
Southerners wanted to gain another slave state by trying to reach Kansas
Douglas definitely didn't care about the whole issue on slavery Douglas's Kansas-Nebraska Scheme The Kansas- Nebraska act was the most momentous measures ever to pass congress
Antislavery northerners where pissed because they called the act as an act of bad faith
Because of this all future compromise would now be difficult with the south
The fugitive slave law of 1850 was previously enforced in the north only half hartedly
The democrats who were very proud where now devastated because of the Kansas - Nebraska act becuase of slavery and it's increase Congress Legislates a Civil War There was a very fiery debate in 1850 for the young Guard and the North to have a chance to talk
William H. Seward, from New York was the spokesperson for the younger northern radicals; a strong antislaveryite, he came out clearly against concession
Seward said that Christian legislators must obey God’s moral law as well as the man’s mundane law he later appealed to exclude slavery in the territories
This cost him the presidency
President Taylor who had allegedly fallen under the influence of men like “Higher Law” The aquisition of California and Oregon had made the United States a pacific power
Britain had humbled China in the opium war
The first formal diplomats signed the treaty of Wanghia
which was the first agreement between China and the United States
Industrial and democratic revolutions were convulsing the western world 4. Indicate how the Whig party’s disintegration over slavery signaled the end of nonsectional political parties.
5. Describe how the Pierce administration, as well as private American adventurers, pursued numerous overseas and expansionist ventures primarily designed to expand slavery.
6. Describe Americans’ first ventures into China and Japan in the 1850s and their diplomatic, economic, cultural, and religious consequences. 7. Describe the nature and purpose of Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Act, and explain why it fiercely rekindled the slavery controversy that the Compromise of 1850 had been designed to settle. Thanks for listening guys ! :)