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Introduction to research

Anuratha Kanniah

on 23 October 2014

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Transcript of RMDS

Introduction to Research
Prepared by: Anuratha Kanniah Prepared on: 21-05-11 Last Modified on: 22-04-09
Research Methods for
Degree Study

Topic & Structure of lesson
Topic & Structure of lesson
Topic & Structure of lesson
What is Research?
Importance of Research
Purposes of Research
Types of Research Paper
Quantitative vs. Qualitative research
The Research Process
Benefits of Knowing Research
Internal & External Researchers
Example: Analytical Research
What is the experts’ point of view about space tourism?
What is your point of view about space tourism?
Methods vs Methodology
Research methods techniques for conduction of research (interview, questionnaire)
Remember this….Research methods are like the tools needed to construct a building.
Scientific research vs non-scientific research
Scientific research

Determined by logical connections and ONLY commits to objective considerations.
Non-scientific research

Intends to find out the nature of the reasons for, consequences of a particular set of circumstances, whether these circumstances are experimentally controlled or just recorded.
Scientific research vs non-scientific research
Scientific research
The Northern Lights (TNL) are due to the charged particles released from the sun’s atmosphere caused by the collisions between gaseuos particles.
Non-scientific research
TNL indicates the location of manabai'wok (giants) who were the spirits of great hunters and fishermen. The lights also represent the spirits of the animals hunted by the Inuit.
What can be researched?
“Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge”
(Redman & Mory, 1923: 10)
Research Methodology – a way to systematically solve a problem.

Remember this…research methodology is the areas that need attention in order to construct the building.
Introduction to Research
Prepared by: Ida Lopez First Prepared on: 12-03-07 Last Modified on: 22-04-09
Research Methods for
Degree Study
What can be researched?
About 25,000 people die every day of hunger or hunger-related causes (United Nation, 2012).
It is children who die most often.
BUT There is plenty of food in the world for everyone. The problem is that hungry people are trapped in severe poverty.
View: http://www.poverty.com/
This is one person every three and a half seconds, as you can see on this display.
Argumentative (Persuasive) Paper

Shouldn’t be confused or contemplating,
otherwise your argument will be weak!

Either A or B, not AB!
Northern Lights….Let’s read…
The bright light is a natural phenomena that
can be seen in North America and some
carts in Southwest of Canada. The
light appears in many shades and forms
like rippling curtains or shooting rays that
brightens the sky.
Topic & Structure of lesson
What is Research?
Importance of Research
Purposes of Research
Types of Research Paper
Quantitative vs. Qualitative research
The Research Process
Benefits of Knowing Research
Internal & External Researchers
Learning Outcomes
Student will be able to:
explain the meaning of “research”
understand the importance of research in degree study
understand the difference between primary research and secondary research
understand the importance of critical thinking
identify purposes of research
distinguish types of research papers
Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative research
outline research processes
Identify internal and external research and its role
What is Research?
“Research can be described as a systematic and organized effort to investigate or scientific inquiry of a specific problem that needs a solution or answer” (Sekaran 1992, p.4).
1. Systematic and organized
2.It encompasses the processes of inquiring / investigating – end result would help to solve problems or suggest ways to solve problems.
Definition of research
Research is a scientific method of solving unsolved problems for our economy and society.
(Professor N.K Sharma, 2011)
Objectives of research
To determine the frequency of some occurrences that is related with something else (diagnostic research)
To examine a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (hypothesis-testing research studies)
What does Research in Degree studies involve?
Doing secondary research i.e. familiarising yourself with the work of “experts” – this process is known as a Literature Review.
Doing a primary research – to build upon what you have already found out about a subject.
Comparing the findings and drawing your own conclusions.
Motivation in research
to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits
to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems
Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work
Desire to be of service to society
Desire to get respectability.
Descriptive Paper
includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries
Describes the state of affairs as it exists at present
Ex post facto research- researcher has no control over the variables only report what has happened or what is happening
Analytical Paper
You do research to become an expert on a topic so that you can present the topic from your own perspective.

In the end, you will be able to contribute your own thoughts to the academic discussion by drawing some conclusions about the topic you have analysed.
Argumentative (Persuasive) Paper

Your approach here is to take a stand on an issue and use evidence to back-up your stance and not to explore a topic.
The genre of argumentative learning
Quantitative vs. Qualitative research
Research Process
Selection of research area
Preliminary information gathering (Secondary Research)
Literature Review
Further data collection (Primary Research)
Data analysis
Deduction (conclusion)
Internal and External Consultants/Researchers
Own consulting or research department within the organization
e.g Management Service Department or R&D Department
consultants/research agencies who have had relevant experience in a particular area.
Hired based on project basis
Internal vs. External Consultants/Researchers
Advantages of internal research team
Being readily accepted
Aware of the organization and its missions
Available for implementation and post-evaluation
The cost of an internal team might be lower than the external team
Internal vs. External Consultants/Researchers
Advantages of external research team
Can draw on wealth of experience since they would have worked on various projects and several alternatives in solving the problems
Able to consider various method of research especially current sophisticated problem-solving models
Not biased
Internal vs. External Consultants/Researchers
Disadvantages of external research team
The cost of hiring is high
Time is required for one to understand the organization
Organizational members might not be very cooperative
If implementation and post-evaluation assistance are required then extra charges and charged
Tutorial (Week 1)
Preparation for Tutorial (Week 1):

Identify a research area (that you have an interest in)

Perform a literature search (using the Internet or the library)
Review Question
What is Research?
Explain the difference between applied and basic research.
Why is it important for managers to understand research?
When would you advise one to engage an external research team compare to using an existing internal research team?
Name the TWO (2) purposes of research.
What are the two main types of research paper?
Outline the 7-steps of the research process in detail.
Q & A
Question and Answer Session
Next Session

Research and Ethics
Objectives of research
To obtain familiarity with a phenomenon or to gain new insights (exploratory or formulative research studies)
To depict the actual characteristics of a particular individual, situation or group (descriptive research studies)
Research in Degree Studies
Producing a research paper at degree level is not the same as writing assignments.

A research paper is a piece of academic writing that requires a more critical and thoughtful level of inquiry or investigation than you might be used to.
Types of Research Papers
Descriptive vs Analytical
Applied vs Fundamental
Quantitative vs Qualitative
Conceptual vs Empirical
Other types – one-time/longitudinal, field setting/laboratory/simulation, clinical/diagnostic, exploratory, historical, conclusion oriented
These are some postulates under scientific method:
Benefits of Knowing Research and Research Methods
Able to identify and effectively solve minor problems
Able to differentiate good research from bad research
Appreciate and be aware of the various factors that influences a situation
Allows one to take calculated risk
Enables an effective communication with hired researchers or consultants
Internal vs. External Consultants/Researchers
Disadvantages of internal research team
May be stereotype due to the long tenure in the organization
Influence is possible by concerned parties within the organization
Not regarded as qualified parties for recommendation
Independent Learning Activities
Read Sekaran (2000), pp. 1-9 to enhance knowledge and understanding.

Make own notes.
researcher seeks to measure such items as, for example, frequency of shopping, preferences of people, or similar data.
it relies on empirical evidence
to test hypotheses
to discover new relationships
Qualitative - to explore and understand people's beliefs, experiences, attitudes, behaviour and interactions. It generates non- numerical data, e.g. a patient's description of their pain rather than a measure of pain.

Quantitative - generates numerical data or data that can be converted into numbers, for example clinical trials or the National Census, which counts people and households.
Qualitative and Quantitative researches
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