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Transcript of Chemical Kinetics
certain amount of time.
Unit: molarity per second (M/s) Reaction rate Rate of Disappearance = Rate of Appearance 4 factors The rates of chemical reactions are affected by these four factors The instantaneous rate is the rate at a particular time as opposed to the average rate over an interval of time. It is obtained from the straight-line tangent that touches the curve at the point of interest.
The slope of a tangent gives the instantaneous rate at the time. Rate of Disappearance Chemical Kinetics : the study of how fast
chemical reactions occur The speed of a reaction Reaction Rate The Instantaneous Rate The rate of disappearance is an reaction rate of a reactant of a chemical reaction. Since the reactant is consumed as the chemical reaction occurs, the concentration of the reactant decrease causing a negative value of delta [reactant]. The negative sign in the equation makes the average rate a positive quantity. Instantaneous Rate 1. The Concentrations of the reactants
2. The temperature at which the reaction occurs
3.The presence of a catalyst
4.The surface area of solid or liquid reactants or catalysts [A] = the molar concentration of A (mol/L)
t = time (s)
delta [A] = the change in concentration: [A]final - [A]initial
delta t = the change in time: final time - initial time !The Reaction rates are always positive quantities.! Rate of Appearance The rate of appearance is an reaction rate
of a product of a chemical reaction. Since the
product is produced as the chemical reaction occurs, the concentration of the product increase
causing a positive value of delta [reactant].
The equation for the rate of appearance
does not contain the negative sign. Note the negative sign! This reminds us that the rate is expressed in term of the disappearance of a reactant. For the reaction A-->B there are two ways of measuring rate A plot of number of moles versus time shows that as the reactants (A) disappear, the product (B) appears.