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Conquests of the Americas

World History - Gun, Germs and Steel
by

Patrick Floyd

on 4 February 2016

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Transcript of Conquests of the Americas

Mexico
Conquests of the Americas
Spain
The Spanish conquerors of the Americas–known as
conquistadors
–had incredible success due to
guns, germs, and steel
and determination
In 1519,
Hernando Cortes
sailed to Mexico with a small force of soldiers in search of gold and silver
Aztec Emperor
Montezuma
and his people thought the Spaniards were gods.
Cortes made
allies
with the
enemies
of the Aztecs
The combination of superior military
technology
and the accidental introduction of
smallpox
allowed Cortes to defeat the Aztecs with relative ease.
Peru
In 1530,
Francisco Pizarro
sailed to Peru to conquer the Inca.
Pretending friendship, he invited the Incan Emperor to visit him.
He ambushed the Inca and murdered the Emperor and eventually conquered the Inca capital by
1533
.
The Spaniards treated the Inca harshly and forced them to accept
Christianity
Colonial Latin America
Colonial Government
As a result of colonial conquests, Spain ruled an
American empire
many times larger than Spain itself
Royal governors known as
viceroys
ruled the colonies in the king's name.
Spanish-born

officials filled other important positions in the government and military
Colonial Society
The Spanish created a system of colonial administration and forced labor called
encomienda
.
The
Jesuits
wanted to convert the natives to
Catholicism
so they built schools, hospitals, and taught agricultural skills
The Jesuits were
expelled
from Latin America in
1767
.
Gradually, a new colonial order emerged
Peninulares
- nobles and landowners who were born in Spain
Creoles
- people with a Spanish background but born in the New World
Mestizos
- people with a Spanish and Native American ancestry
Native Americans - bottom of the scale, did most of the hard work
Colonial Society (cont.)
Forced labor,
starvation
, and
disease
took a huge toll on the Native Americans.
European diseases ravaged the native populations, who
lacked immunity
to such diseases as
smallpox
.
Hispaniola
had a population of
250,000
when
Columbus
arrived. By 1538, only
500
Native Americans had survived.
Mexico’s population dropped from
25 million to 1 million.
The
decimation
of Native American labor forced Spanish and Portuguese landowners to import
African
slaves
Other European Colonial Empires
New France
Established in
Canada
and along the
Great Lakes
Not highly populated. Consisted of a few cities and towns and a series of
trading outposts
French
missionaries
came to the Americas to convert the Natives to Christianity
By the end of the
1700's
, French territory covered
3/4
of North America.
French explorers were attracted to the region for
fur-trapping
Stand up and Stretch!
Other European Colonial Empires
New Netherlands
Based on the explorations of
Henry Hudson
, the
Dutch
claimed control of the region around present-day
New York
.
They set up a successful fur trade with the natives and established their colony
New Netherland
The Dutch gave merchants control of the
Dutch West India Company
In 1624, 30 families settled in Ft. Orange (present-day Albany)
The next year, more settlers arrived and established another colony called
New Amsterdam
on the tip of Manhattan Island
Other European Colonial Empires
The English Colonies
The first permanent English colony was established by a private company in
Jamestown
, Virginia in 1607
The first settlers came looking for gold but
tobacco
eventually made the colony profitable
A second colony was founded by a Protestant group called the
Pilgrims
at Plymouth Rock in
1620
Another group of English Protestants called the
Puritans
landed at Massachusetts Bay in
1630
.
Both groups came to the Americas to practice their religion without
persecution
Eventually, 13 English colonies were established along the
East Coast
from Massachusetts to Georgia
Guns, Germs, And Steel
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