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Theories on radio and the television
Transcript of Theories on radio and the television
1950's - 1960's
subtraction of media effects research
reinforcement for personal values from the media by:
seeking role models
identify with behavior
gain an insight into themselves
diversion from problems and unpleasant circumstances
relaxant and sexual stimulant
something to do
which allows a more effective use of spatial relativity to convey meaning.
compare self with character by seeing whether you would act in the same or different way
social integration & interacion
gain insight into the circumstances of others
feeling of participation and a sense of belonging
provides the agenda for conversation
assists in the undertaking of social roles
by Lelanie Judeel
Why audiences engage in media behaviour
listen to radio
research seeking to
Early history of communications researh
studied gratifications (1942)
to the of kind of media and
types of content that satisfies
weak role in election decisions
influence of other people
Mass media = escape
(Katz and Foulkes, 1962)
Functions of radio listening
bracketing the day
counteracting loneliness or boredom
aiding social interaction
Dependency & Deprevation theories:
confinement to home
HIGH LEVELS OF MEDIA ATTACHMENT
& remote control devices
Statement: A medium will be used more when the existing motives to use the medium leads to more satisfaction.
Why do people watch television?
The earliest theories of mass communication imagined that mass media had very strong effects on their audiences
"Martian invasion" radio broadcast in 1938.
Invaders from the planet Mars had landed in southern New Jersey.
Some did believe it, MOST DID NOT, and the ways in which they came to not believe were very interesting.
switched channels to see if the news was being carried elsewhere;
some picked up the phone and called friends to see if they were listening and if so, to ask what they thought about it;
some paid enough critical attention to the show to recognize that it was fiction.
most people did not accept the media message at face value
talking to others
TV messages responds to the needs of the audience BY providing information that NURTURES them in several ways
this pre-existence of NEEDS
directs media attendance toward GRATIFICATIONS
contents of a medium
particular genre within the medium
social setting within which the
medium is used
general exposure to the medium
relevant events and conditions in immediate surroundings, society and the world
seeking advice on practical matters and decisions
satisfying curiosity and general interest
(Berry, Michell-Kernan, 1982)
(Morley, 1986; Lull 1990)
THESE NEEDS CAN
cry/feel sorry for yourself
Development of mass media theories
Magic bullet theory
Uses and gratification theory
Why do people watch television?
Examples of uses and gratifications
This Shannon/Weaver model
illustrates how these theories
saw the media message as a kind
of "magic bullet."
Sent out by the organization, the magic bullets "hit" the members of the audience in their "minds" and changed their thoughts.
uses & gratification theory
DID I SATISFY YOUR NEEDS??
(Berelson et al.., 1954)
Berelson, B, Lazarsfield, P.F. & McPhee, W.N. (1954). Voting: a study of opinion formation in a presidental campaign. Chicargo: Oxford University Press.
Katz, E., & Foulkes, D.,(1962). On the use of mass media as escape: clarification of a concept. Public Opinion Quaterly, 26, 377-388.
Mendelsohn, H. (1964). Listening to the radio. In L.A. Dexter & D.M. White (Eds.), Mass communication theory: an introduction (pp. 239-248). New Yor: Free LPress.
1940's and 1950's
Lazarsfeld, P.F., Berelson, B. & Gaudet, H. (1968). The people’s choice: How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign. New York: Columbia University Press.
DeFleur, Melvin L. (1989). Theories of Mass Communication. New York:: Longman Inc.,
Of 120 families who were offered $500 by the Detroit Press to give up television viewing for a month, only 5 families agreed
reported feeling bored, nervous and depressed
experienced a rise in domestic violence, smoking and the use of tranquilizers.
people respond to different genres on television (NEEDS)
television programmers can target specific groups of people by anticipating their needs
utilising uses and gratification approach inherent in the use of television.
This is born out of the reluctance of people to let go of the set once they have acquired it.
Therefore, the Uses and Gratification Theory, which identifies needs that correlate with ‘Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs’ has been proved right as far as the television experience is concerned.
Individuals do derive social and psychological benefits from watching television and it is these needs that determine their preferences in television genre.