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Theories on radio and the television

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by

Lelanie Judeel

on 4 November 2016

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Transcript of Theories on radio and the television

Milena Flament
history
1950's - 1960's
development
mass
on
1940's
subtraction of media effects research
(McQuail, 1994)
radio
U
reinforcement for personal values from the media by:
seeking role models
identify with behavior
copy behaviour
gain an insight into themselves


diversion from problems and unpleasant circumstances

relaxant and sexual stimulant

emotional release

something to do
which allows a more effective use of spatial relativity to convey meaning.
CONTENT
compare self with character by seeing whether you would act in the same or different way
informational
needs
identity
(McQuail, 1987)
social integration & interacion
CLASSIFIED
gain insight into the circumstances of others

feeling of participation and a sense of belonging

provides the agenda for conversation

assists in the undertaking of social roles
Theories
television
and the
by Lelanie Judeel
Uses
and
gratification
theory
(Cantril, 1942)
of
media
theories
approach
G
ses
&
ratification
Why audiences engage in media behaviour
listen to radio
watch television
Qualitative descriptive
research seeking to
classify responses
meaningful categories
Early history of communications researh
studied gratifications (1942)
attract
hold
audiences
attention
to the of kind of media and
types of content that satisfies
social
psychological
needs
1940 Election
1948 Election
Massmedia -
weak role in election decisions
compared with
personal influence
influence of other people
Mass media = escape
(Katz and Foulkes, 1962)
Functions of radio listening
(Mendelsohn, 1964):
companionship
bracketing the day
changing mood
counteracting loneliness or boredom
aiding social interaction
Uses

Dependency & Deprevation theories:
Individual circumstances:
confinement to home
low income
stress
HIGH LEVELS OF MEDIA ATTACHMENT
television
newspapers
& remote control devices
.

Statement: A medium will be used more when the existing motives to use the medium leads to more satisfaction.

Why do people watch television?


The earliest theories of mass communication imagined that mass media had very strong effects on their audiences
magic
bullet
theory
"Martian invasion" radio broadcast in 1938.

Invaders from the planet Mars had landed in southern New Jersey.

Some did believe it, MOST DID NOT, and the ways in which they came to not believe were very interesting.





switched channels to see if the news was being carried elsewhere;
some picked up the phone and called friends to see if they were listening and if so, to ask what they thought about it;
some paid enough critical attention to the show to recognize that it was fiction.


most people did not accept the media message at face value

meaning:
prior expeciences
talking to others
Critique
Hypodermic

needle
&
Gratification
SHIFT
audience member
PASSIVE
inner role
DYNAMIC
participant
functionalist
"needs
paradigm
of
the
individual
"

TV messages responds to the needs of the audience BY providing information that NURTURES them in several ways
USES
this pre-existence of NEEDS
directs media attendance toward GRATIFICATIONS
(Anderson, 1996)
NEEDS
entertainment

contents of a medium

particular genre within the medium

social setting within which the
medium is used

general exposure to the medium
Informational
relevant events and conditions in immediate surroundings, society and the world

seeking advice on practical matters and decisions

satisfying curiosity and general interest

learning; self-education
needs
Personal
identity
(Berry, Michell-Kernan, 1982)
Integration
&
social
interaction
(Morley, 1986; Lull 1990)
Entertainment
GRATIFICATION
FULFILLMENT OF
THESE NEEDS CAN
BE OBTAINED
THROUGH:
Cheering up
need:
need:
cry/feel sorry for yourself
need:
woman's revenge
need:
motivation/inspiration
Objectives
Development of mass media theories

Magic bullet theory

Uses and gratification theory

Why do people watch television?

Examples of uses and gratifications
This Shannon/Weaver model
illustrates how these theories
saw the media message as a kind
of "magic bullet."
Sent out by the organization, the magic bullets "hit" the members of the audience in their "minds" and changed their thoughts.
uses & gratification theory
&
CONCLUSION
DID I SATISFY YOUR NEEDS??
References
(Berelson et al.., 1954)
Berelson, B, Lazarsfield, P.F. & McPhee, W.N. (1954). Voting: a study of opinion formation in a presidental campaign. Chicargo: Oxford University Press.
Katz, E., & Foulkes, D.,(1962). On the use of mass media as escape: clarification of a concept. Public Opinion Quaterly, 26, 377-388.
Mendelsohn, H. (1964). Listening to the radio. In L.A. Dexter & D.M. White (Eds.), Mass communication theory: an introduction (pp. 239-248). New Yor: Free LPress.
1940's and 1950's
Lazarsfeld, P.F., Berelson, B. & Gaudet, H. (1968). The people’s choice: How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign. New York: Columbia University Press.
DeFleur, Melvin L. (1989). Theories of Mass Communication. New York:: Longman Inc.,




Of 120 families who were offered $500 by the Detroit Press to give up television viewing for a month, only 5 families agreed

reported feeling bored, nervous and depressed
experienced a rise in domestic violence, smoking and the use of tranquilizers.


people respond to different genres on television (NEEDS)

television programmers can target specific groups of people by anticipating their needs

utilising uses and gratification approach inherent in the use of television.
This is born out of the reluctance of people to let go of the set once they have acquired it.
Therefore, the Uses and Gratification Theory, which identifies needs that correlate with ‘Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs’ has been proved right as far as the television experience is concerned.

Individuals do derive social and psychological benefits from watching television and it is these needs that determine their preferences in television genre.
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