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The League of Nations

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Kyam Villkhu

on 8 January 2013

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Transcript of The League of Nations

A* Candidate resource The League of Nations What was the League of Nations? What was the aims of the League of Nations How could the League make countries do what they wanted? How was the League of Nations organised? Who belonged to the League Of Nations? - Encourage countries to cooperate especially in business and trade
- Encourage nations to disarm
- Improve working and living conditions in all parts of the world
- To be united and strong enough to discourage any nation from using force as a way to solve dispute
- Not to go to war but to settle disputes in a civil way.
- To provide a place to discuss international disputes and work them out peacefully
- Maintain justice and respect for all treaty obligations
- Agreeing to be open, just, and honourable between nations. - Britain and France wanted the League to be a sort of informal club = in a crisis the big nations would get together. However Woodrow Wilson disagreed and suggested that it should be an international organisation which would work like a international government. - plus there was already a sort of informal club called the Council of Ambassadors.

- Wilson believed that the League would ensure that there was not a repeat of WW1. = With this, most ordinary people believed the USA would take the leading role to prevent another war.

The League of Nations was set up into 5 main governing bodies:
- The Council
- Assembly
- Secretariat
- Court of International Justice
- Commissions - - Began with 42 nations. By 1939 there were over 50 nations.

PROBLEMS
-USA never joined > It may have been Wilson's idea, but he could not get the rest of the USA to agree with him. Also the US congress didn't want to be involved with sorting out problems in the rest of the world = This view became known as isolationism. = Big drawback for the League.
- Everyone knew the League needed the USA's money and troops so it could work effectively.
- Germany was refused membership > As they were blamed for most of the war.
- The USSR were banned > Because the League did not approve of communist politics.
- Most of the victorious countries would join. This made the League strong and had a better role in preventing future war
- Britain and France were the main members - helped by Italy and Japan - The League was an INTERNATIONAL organisation, this was set up as a PART of the Treaty of Versailles
- The League was the MAIN idea of the US President Woodrow Wilson = he thought The League would HELP to STOP future wars
- There were 42 countries in The League when it BEGAN in 1919
- The League was SET UP in January 1920 - the was under the Terms of the Treaty of Versailles
- All major nations in Europe were in the League at some point
- They promised to protect each other if they were invaded, to try to maintain international peace
- The main role of the League of Nations was to ensure the Versailles peace settlement was carried out The covenant of the League was a list which all members had to agree to follow. The most important article showed members would act together to ensure if a member was threatened with war, they would be protected by other countries > This is called Collective Security.

IT HAD 3 MAIN POWERS TO USE IF A COUNTRY WAS NOT COOPERATE - Moral Condemnation
- Economic Sanctions
- Armed Force Who belonged to the League Of Nations? - Began with 42 nations. By 1939 there were over 50 nations.

PROBLEMS
-USA never joined > It may have been Wilson's idea, but he could not get the rest of the USA to agree with him. Also the US congress didn't want to be involved with sorting out problems in the rest of the world = This view became known as isolationism. = Big drawback for the League.
- Everyone knew the League needed the USA's money and troops so it could work effectively.
- Germany was refused membership > As they were blamed for most of the war.
- The USSR were banned > Because the League did not approve of communist politics.
- Most of the victorious countries would join. This made the League strong and had a better role in preventing future war
- Britain and France were the main members - helped by Italy and Japan Main members - when they joined and when they left Moral condemnation Put pressure on that country/ aggressor by critisising it's actions to shame it up into stopping
war and accepting the League's decisions Cutting off imports and exports from that country. All countries would stop trading entirely with that country. Also if that country has important supplies, they'd still cut it off - only in the situation where they NEED their supplies, e.g = oil Economic Sanctions All countries would contribute armed forces againt the aggressor.
(This dealt with disputes between countries by international law) Armed Forces The Council The Council's main function was to settle international disputes. The numbers of permanent and non-permanent members varied. Council meetings were held in ordinary session four times a year and as often as needed in extraordinary sessions. 107 public sessions were held between 1920 and 1939. From 1922 onwards, the minutes appeared in the Official Journal. Records for meetings held before 1922 were published separately. The resolutions can only be found in the minutes of the meetings. Assembly The Assembly was the annual conference of League member states. The Proceedings of the Assembly appeared as a separate publication for the first three sessions, the first of which was held in Paris on January 16, 1920. Thereafter, until 1938, they were issued as a Special Supplement to the Official Journal. Resolutions passed in the Plenary Sessions were also published in Special Supplements. These supplements were numbered consecutively over the years. Secretariat The Secretariat carries out the day-to-day work of the League. It services the other principal organs and carries out tasks as varied as the issues dealt with by the League of Nations: administering peacekeeping operations, surveying economic and social trends, preparing studies on human rights, among others. Court of International
Justice The International Court of Justice, located at the Hague in the Netherlands, is the principal judicial organ of the League of Nations. It settles legal disputes between states and gives advisory opinions to the League and its specialized agencies. Commissions During the 1920's they helped to improve working conditions for workers, Free slaves in Africa and Burma (although prostitution was still a major thing) and also they helped to get nearly all of the POWs home, Helped find a cure for malaria and leprosy. They also banned the use of opium ( a drug ). They also tried to get countries to agree to disarm.

The main areas they sort out the worlds major problems in is
- Health Organization
- International Labour Organization
- Slavery Commission
- Commission for Refugees
- Permanent Mandates Commission Covanent of the League
of Nations - The Covanent was a list of 26 laws/ articles that all members had to follow
- The most important article (article 10) showed the members of the League would act together to ensure if a member was threatened with war, they were protected by other countries, this is called = COLLECTIVE SECURITY
- Members were unwilling to enforce the economic sanctions, this meant the League of Nations failed as a peacekeeping role
- in 1945 the League of Nations was replaced with the United Nations

Also most of the aims of the League of Nations was outlined in the Covanent;

- Collective Security was a method of solving disputes
- The compulsory regristration of all treaties to avoid secret alliances
- The reduction and control of arms so that there could be no future arms race
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