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Transcript of Gondwana Rainforest
The Threats to the Gondwana
There aren’t a great number of threats to the Gondwana Rainforest, but here are the main problems affecting the forest:
Tourists can sometimes cause vegetation damage.
Imported plants cause weed problems for the rainforest, competing for space and water.
Introduced animal species in the Gondwana Rainforest kills many plant and animal species native to the rainforest.
Food Chains and Webs
The levels of the food chain in a rainforest-
1. Plants, flowers, fruits, plankton, insects, spiders.
2. Frogs, fish, bandicoots, possums, echidnas, birds, wallabies and kangaroos.
3. Snakes, quolls, dunnarts, platypus, kookaburras, owls, birds of prey.
4. Pythons, crocodiles, dingoes, feral cats, feral dogs.
This food chain is affected mainly by deforestation. When people take trees from the Gondwana, it deprives the frogs, fish, bandicoots etc. of their food, killing them. Then once the smaller animals have died off the bigger animals no longer have a food source, killing them as well, and so on.
The biodiversity and ecosystems occur in the gondwana
The Gondwana Rainforest looks after multiple habitats for some animal and plant species that can be found only in the Gondwana rainforest. Thousands of Australian species live in the rainforest.
A wide range of animals and plants lineages have a origin from within these rainforest and reserves.
2 unique flora
In Australia, the Velvet Jewel Orchid grows in moist shady sites in rainforests in leaf litter on the ground or on large boulders adjacent to streams. Altitudinal range is 450–820 m above sea level
The Velvet Jewel Orchid is found mostly from moist, cloudy or very wet rainfall zones on metamorphic substrates, granite or rhyolite. The species can be found in humus on flat topped rocks in association with Anoectochilus yatesiae, Goodyera viridiflora and Liparis simmondsii. The Velvet Jewel Orchid is found in the following Regional Ecosystems. Syzygium smithii grows as a tree to 20 m high by 5–15 m wide, with a trunk attaining a diameter of 70 cm. The largest tree was recorded at Dingo Creek Flora Reserve, south of Tenterfield, being 30 m tall and a trunk 60 cm wide.
A distinctive narrow leaved form with thin leaves 3–6 cm long is found along rainforest riverbanks from Sydney northwards through Queensland, and a small leaved form (known as the small-leaved race or var. minor) with leaves measuring 1.6–6 cm found in dryer rainforests from Colo Heights near Sydney north to the Bunya Mountains.
How important is the Gondwana
Rainforest once covered most of the ancient southern supercontinent Gondwana and remains the most ancient type of vegetation in Australia. The Gondwana Rainforests provide an interesting living link with the evolution of Australia. Few places on earth contain so many plants and animals which remain relatively unchanged from their ancestors in the fossil record. Some of the oldest elements of the world's ferns and conifers are found here and there is a concentration of primitive plant families that are direct links with the birth and spread of flowering plants over 100 million years ago. A range of geological and environmental influences in the Gondwana Rainforests determine where forest communities grow. This process has occurred over millions of years and will continue to change the forest mosaic into the future.
'Friends Of Gondwana', Friends of Gondwana Rainforest, 2011, Accessed: 12th November 2013, Source: from: http://gondwanarainforest.org/
'Gondwana rainforests of Australia', World HEritage Area, Accessed: 18th November 2013, Source: from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/protectedareas/2011GondwanaWHANSWver3.pdf
'Gondwana Rainforests of Australia', World Heritage Convention, 2010, Accessed: 13th November 2013, Source: from: http://willrossshs.eq.edu.au/student_sites/schroer/index_files/page0007.htm
2 unique fauna
The dingo (Canis lupus dingo) is a free-roaming dog found mainly in Australia, as well as Southeast Asia, where it is said to have originated. It is currently classified as a subspecies of the grey wolf, Canis lupus.
A dingo's habitat ranges from deserts to grasslands and the edges of forests. Dingoes will normally make their dens in deserted rabbit holes and hollow logs close to an essential supply of water.
The dingo is the largest terrestrial predator in Australia, and plays an important role as an apex predator. However, the dingo is seen as a pest by sheep farmers due to frequent attacks on livestock. Conversely, their predation on rabbits, kangaroos and rats is of benefit to cattle stations.
For many Australians, the dingo is a cultural icon. As a result, there is fear of the species becoming extinct, similar to the case of the thylacine in Tasmania, commonly known as the Tasmanian tiger, thought to have become extinct in the 20th century. The dingo is seen by many as being responsible for thylacine extinction on the Australian mainland about two thousand years ago, although a recent study challenges this view.
The brown antechinus is found east of the Great Dividing Range in Australia, from south eastern Queensland to around Kioloa, New South Wales. It is mostly found in forested habitats.
The brown antechinus is mostly nocturnal and is arboreal, and females build large communal nests shared by many individuals. Like all antechinuses, the males die after their first breeding season (which lasts two weeks) as a result of stress and exhaustion. Female brown antechinuses do not possess a pouch; the young must attach themselves to the teats (of which there are usually eight). Its diet includes beetles, spiders, amphipods and cockroaches, although it is an opportunistic feeder. The litter size is 6 to 7 young.