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2.1 Functions and evolution of human resources management 2014

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Deborah Kelly

on 23 May 2018

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Transcript of 2.1 Functions and evolution of human resources management 2014

2.1 Functions and evolution of human resources management
Human Resource (HR) Management
is the management function of recruiting capable, flexible and committed people, managing and rewarding their performance and developing their key skills to the benefit of a business in order to meet its organizational objectives.
Human Resource (Workforce) planning
- analyzing and forecasting both the current and future number of employees needed and the skills of those employees that will be required by an organization to achieve its objectives. It is a continuous process.
People are a businesses most valuable resource!
Labour Turnover
Labour turnover refers to the movement of employees into and out of a business in a given time period (usually a year) and is an indicator of how stable a business is.
Labour turnover is measured by the following formula:
Labour turnover =
number of staff leaving

total number of staff
x 100
TRY: A school has 46 overseas hire teachers. This year 9 teachers are leaving. What is the labour turnover rate?
Internal and External factors that influence human resource planning
Many factors can influence an organizations HR plan. Even before a business employs someone, some
external factors
can have an effect on the pool of labour available for potential employment. Also the business itself may change and
internal factors
influence the HR plan in place.
Examples of External Factors
Technological change
- improvements in ICT can lead to more teleworking from home.
Government regulations
- changes in laws or regulations about health and safety, maximum working hours, equality in the workplace and age of retirement.
Demographic change
- such as an aging population, reduced fertility rates, or changes in internal migration pattern.
Social trends
- changes in the role of women, an increase in the number of single parent families or the importance of the "work-life" balance.
The state of the economy
- economic boom vs a recession
Changes in education
- rising or falling education levels and availability of courses/programmes
Labour mobility
- occupational mobility (changing occupations) or geographical mobility (changing locations)
Examples of Internal Factors
Changes in business organization
- an acquisition or reorganization to better meet strategic plans

Changes in labour relations
- unions vs no union

Changes in business strategy

Changes in business finance

The process of identifying the need for a new employee, defining the job to be filled and the type of person needed to fill it, attracting suitable candidates for the job and selecting the best one. There are usually three stages:
Identification/ Job analysis
- Through examining the job components, a
job description
(a document that outlines the details of a particular job) and
person specification
(an outline of the ideal candidate such as their qualifications, skills and experiences) are determined.

- an
is created and candidates apply for the job (application form, cover letter and resume). A shortlist of candidates is determined. These are the candidates that meet the requirements and will be interviewed.

are held, references contacted, digital footprint checked and sometimes testing occurs as well.Then, a job offer is made to the best candidate.
Getting the right person is essential.
Case Study: Economic downturn results in Electrolux job losses.

Electrolux, a world-leading kitchen appliance maker, made a loss in the first three months of 2008. The company was forced to cut costs because demand for its products was falling, especially in the USA. "Demand for our products has been lower than our forecasts and this has hit our profits." The company planned to cut 400 jobs in its European factories to save $72 million.

1. Explain why HR planning is important to a business such as Electrolux.

2. Apart from a global downturn in demand, explain three factors that could influence the numbers of workers required by Electrolux.
Do Aldi Workforce Planning Questions.
Internal and External Recruitment
1. Draw up a
job description
for a _____________ teacher at CIS.

2. Draw up a detailed
person specification
for this post.

3. Sketch a
of an eye catching and effective
website advertisement
for this job including key features from the job description and person specification.

4. What are some
interview questions
Mr. Cochran or Mr. Smith should ask?
TASK: Let's help Mr. Cochran or Mr. Smith with the upcoming recruitment.

Internal recruitment
is when the business looks to fill the vacancy from within its existing workforce.
External recruitment
is when the business looks to fill the vacancy from any suitable applicant outside the business.
+ cost effective
+ less down time
+ Less risk
+ Motivational
- fewer applicants
- "Dead wood"
- time-consuming
- internal politics
+ "new blood"
+ wider range of experiences
+ larger pool of applicants
- greater degree of uncertainty
- time-consuming
- expensive
After recruitment comes training. This can help an employees professional development (PD). It can keep the employee up to date with the latest ideas and technologies. It may lead to an employee finding a new career path by being re skilled.
Training is important for a business. It can:
improve the quality of the work
lead to greater productivity
motivate the employee
reduce labour turnover
Types of Training
- training that focuses on making an employee familiar with the way the business functions and with the lines of authority (who to report to). A good induction program helps to ensure that new employees settle in quickly.

- when employees are trained while they are doing their normal job. Often this occurs throught mentoring which is when an experienced employee guides the employee being trained. This could be "shadowing" where an employee follows or "shadows" another to learn a new skill.
Off- the-job
- when an employee is given time off from work to attend training away from the job. The training may be a workshop, conference or course run by consultants, or educational institutions. Often companies support further education through MBA programs or university courses.
Another way to think about training is not how and where it occurs but rather what the aim of the training is. Most often, training is about learning skills or knowledge to enhance job performance. Other forms of training help employees in other ways such as:

Cognitive training
- this is training that helps employees develop their thinking and processing skills. The assumption is that they will be able to make quicker and more effective decisions.

Behavioural training
- this helps employees develop their interpersonal skills (how they work with others) and intrapersonal skills (how they manage emotions). Behavioural training is useful for employees working in project teams and positions of leadership.
Appraisal is the formal assessment of an employee's performance in fulfilling his/her job based on the tasks and responsibilities set out in their job description.

Under an appraisal system employees may respond to or even initiate discussion. Communication is two way and managers include constructive feedback in order to foster a positive and inclusive working environment. Appraisal is supposed to be a non-threatening, non-judgemental and supportive process.
Do Aldi training and development questions.
$3000 to leave.
Types of Appraisal
360-degree feedback
- because appraisal is intended to be a learning process, often it is a continuous. The focus is to give employees feedback when they have done well and also in areas in which they have had difficulties. The idea is to help employees improve.

- this measures an employee's performance according to set standards. A summative assessment has an element of making a judgement of whether an employee has passed or failed. Summative assessments tests employee's knowledge and skills against clear and explicit criteria and then sums up how an employee has performed against the standards. Summative appraisal is usually conducted at the end of a project, a contract or specific goal. Failure does not necessarily lead to to termination.
360 degree
- this method provides each employee with the opportunity to receive performance appraisal not only from their line manager but also from four to eight co-workers, subordinates and even customers or clients. It is a complex appraisal as it has
multiple perspectives
. It is commonly used with CEOs and other executives who interact with several groups of stakeholders.
- Individual employees reflect on their own performance. Usually this is done with the help of a self-appraisal form on which employees rate themselves on various performance indicators. Typically employees can also indicate training needs, and discuss their accomplishments, strengths, weaknesses and any problems faced. It can be used by itself or with other performance appraisal processes.
The Office UK - Big Keith's appraisal
Termination, dismissal and redundancy
The final stage in the HR plan is when an employee leaves the business. This happens because:

- an employee chooses to leave the business
- the business decides that the employee should no longer work there
- when workers because of their age retire from the workforce.
- (layoffs) the job ceases to exist
- when a worker is told to leave the job because of inappropriate behaviour or they have repeatedly failed to carry out their duties.

- a lack of ability or effectiveness in carrying out the job.
- unacceptable behaviour (late, harassment of ees, rude to customers...)
Gross misconduct
- theft, fraud, sexual harassment, alcohol use at work
Legal requirements
- if they do not have the necessary skills or requirements for the job (perhaps falsified documents)
In order to dismiss an employee (except for gross misconduct which is immediate), there are usually three steps:

- an initial warning - can be verbal or in writing.

- an official written warning and a formal meeting with the employer. An action plan and time frame for improvement are put in writing.

- any further cases of misconduct result in dismissal
Note that not all cases of dismissal are justified.
Unfair dismissal
occurs when an employee is dismissed without a valid or legal reason. If the employee can prove they were wrongly dismissed they can get their job back or financial compensation.
- occurs when a business no longer has any work for the employee.

a drop in demand for the business's product
changing market circumstances
a recession
the business becomes insolvent or bankrupt
the job a person was doing is replaced by a machine
relocation of the business
restructure or reorganization of the business
a merger or takeover
If an employee loses a job through no fault of their own, they normally receive a redundancy package.

When a large number of positions are made redundant, deciding which employees to retain can be difficult for managers. There would normally have two options to offer:

Voluntary redundancy
- some employees chose to be redundant.

Involuntary redundancy
- it could be based on age, years of service or other criteria.
Changes in work patterns, practices and preferences
Over the past 50 years there have been many changes in work patterns stemming from external factors such as social trends to have a better work-life balance and many businesses are trying to respond to the desires of employees.

Other factors are:
privatization and the move from public to private sector employment
increase migration in a country, and across the globe
increasing # of females in the workforce
changing educational opportunities
increasing urbanization and rise in stress levels
an aging population and increasing average age of workforce.
Changes in work patterns
The types of jobs required by businesses as well as the types of jobs people want has changed.
Fastest Growing Jobs for 2017 onwards
1. Home Health Aide
2. Physical Therapist
3. Emergency Medical Technician
4. Nurse Practicioner
5. Web Developer
6. Occupational Therapist
7. Physician Assistant
8. Operations Research Analyst
9. Diagnostic Medical Sonographer
10 Optician
Most in demand jobs for 2017
1. Home Health Aide
2. Physical therapist
3. Financial Adviser
4. Software Engineer
5. Information security analyst
6. Registered Nurse
7. Data scientist
8. General business manager and operations manage
9. Truck driver
Changes in work practices
Work practices in

Full-time work
- when employees work the maximum hours per week accepted by the law.

Permanent contracts
- An employee who has been hired for a position without a predetermined time limit.
Work practices on the

There is greater demand for more flexible working practices such as:

Part-time work
- employees work less than the full time maximum hours.

- work that is on a fixed term contract of a temporary nature.
- when someone who is self-employed works for several different employers at the same time.
- work taking place from home or a telecommunications center. Often requires a core number of hours in the center.
- an employee works from home. There is usually an expectation for some core time in the office.
- work involving a set number of hours of the employees own choosing. Often there is a core period that they have to be at the office and the rest is up to them.
Casual Fridays
- an employee is allowed to wear less formal dress on Friday's.
Three-day weekend
- Instead of working 5 - 8 hour days, the employee works 4 days of 10 hours and has a 3-day weekend.
Changes in work preferences
Instead of working continuously for 20 - 30 years for the same company, many employees are adapting their work routines to suit changing lifestyles.

Career breaks
- an employee decides to stop working for a time , usually one year before returning to work in the same career. The employer agrees and will offer a "sabbatical".
Job share
- two or more employees decide to share a job in order to free up time for other activities.
- an employee gives up a senior position or highly paid position in order to career change into another lower-paid field or area of interest.
Study leave
- an employee is granted time off work to acquire a new qualification such as an MBA.
Work Life Balance in France

In 2000, the French government reduced the number of hours in the work week from 39 - 35 hours. Now under a new deal, French employers have a legally binding agreement that requires employers to make sure staff "disconnect" outside of working hours.

The deal, which affects ~ 250000 employees in the technology and consultancy sector (Including French Google, Facebook, Deloitte and PwC), means that employees will have to resist the temptation to look at work-related material on their computers or phone during their free time. Companies must ensure that their employees come under no pressure to do so.

1. Explain the impact on:
a) employers
b) employees
2. Discuss the impact this change might have on the culture of businesses in France.
Read the articles:
How your workplace is killing you
Flexible work hours extended to all (UK)
Flexible working hours can make you ill
Virgin parental leave + American Express parental leave
Flexible working practices at
Read and respond to the article.
Six important HR lessons from Legendary ex- HR director of Netflix.
HRM costs can be significant for many businesses, particularly for service based businesses in the tertiary or quaternary sectors. One way to compensate for these costs is to hire a specialist HR firm and have them perform the HRM functions for a business. This is known as outsourcing.

(or subcontracting) refers to the practice of having an external organization perform some aspect of a business's operational functions such as HRM, production, distribution, marketing, finance etc. This allows a business to focus on its core competencies, reduce costs, increase productivity and gain a competitive advantage.
With globalization and improved global communication, offshoring has been a growth area is the modern business environment.
Examples of typical business functions that can be outsourced are:
, using an advertising agency
operations management
, licensing a producer to make your product
, employing an agency to "headhunt" potential staff
, hiring accountants for external audits.
CUEGIS and Human Resources
It is easy to say that, because production costs are cheaper elsewhere, then production should be moved offshore. But there are many ethical implications for businesses to consider.

Think about the people in the original location, and the people in the "offshore" location - what effect will off-shoring have one them.
can have a major impact on an HR plan. A business committed to being "innovative" must have a greater strategic focus on HR than any other business function. Innovations come from people. The business will not be innovative unless it recruits and retains the right people.
Google prides itself on being innovative and employing creative individuals.
- requires HR managers to think about how ICT contributes to workforce planning. For example, in addition to their own websites, some businesses are also using LinkedIn and Facebook as part of their recruitment practice.

Potential ees too need to think about what is on their FB - employers often do a check before hiring. Other ees have been fired due to FB postings.

Managers in multinational companies use ICT as a tool to improve the capabilities, efficiency and functions of the organization and its global workforce.
Cultural Differences
Culture can have a significant effect on the HR plan for any business that employs a multicultural workforce.

Think about the following cultural differences that could impact a HR plan.
Body language
Personal space
Power distance
Uncertainty avoidance
Long-term planning
Different cultures have different expectations. Training people to work in diverse workforces can reduce potential misunderstandings and friction that can emerge from cultural differences. As well as take advantage of the benefits of a diverse workforce such as increased innovation and creativity.
2.1 - Knowledge Worksheet
Read Articles:
offshoring and reshoring - Why it is time to bring manufacturing back to the US
Adidas - Germany
Frog Bikes - UK
Article: Reshoring Or Offshoring: U.S. Manufacturing Forecast 2015-2016
is the reversal of
offshore outsourcing
, ie the transfer of business operations back to its country of origin. Re-shoring has become more popular as the cost-effectiveness of offshoring has declined for many European and American companies.

Reasons for re-shoring:
Product recalls
Mass media coverage of unethical business practices
China has lost its status as the "workshop factory" of the world
Transportation costs are rising
Domestic governments are supporting reshoring to bring jobs back
What is flexible working?
MaltEaster Bunny shortage -
Case Study.
1. To what extent do you think Mars was right to
outsource the production
of its MaltEaster Bunnies?

2. Evaluate the issues that might be involved in implementing a
workforce plan
to bring production of MaltEaster Bunnies back to the main Mars factory in west London.
"In the News" Headline - New Study Shows High Turnover and Unclear Workforce Planning to be Obstacles
Although it is often dreaded by employees a performance review is supposed to be a positive experience of reflection and future goal setting.
French workers have won the right to ignore business emails that arrive after hours.

A new labor law that took effect on Sunday gives employees the "right to disconnect" from email, smartphones and other electronic leashes once their working day has ended.

"These measures are designed to ensure respect for rest periods and ... balance between work and family and personal life," the Ministry of Labor said in a statement.

French workers can ignore work emails - January 1, 2017
Want a job in 2025?
Learn these skills
Source: Statista - Niall McCarthy - Jun 19, 2017
In the majority of developed nations, more and more men are starting to bid farewell to their colleagues and prioritize their new child over work. Indeed, the OECD says that men's use of parental leave is rising, though the portion actually taking it varies heavily between different countries. In Australia, the Czech Republic and Poland, one in fifty fathers take the time off while in Nordic countries, 40 percent take leave. In Finland alone, the share of fathers taking paid leave has doubled between 2006 and 2013.
Out of all OECD countries, South Korea offers its dads the longest parental leave at 53 weeks, slightly ahead of Japan's 52 weeks. Despite that generous allowance, very few fathers in both countries take advantage of it as they fear the career implications. Nevertheless, men accounted for 4.5 percent of leave takers in South Korea in 2014, a three-fold increase on 2007. The U.S. is one of 9 OECD countries with no paid parental leave for fathers.
Paternity Leave
Hiring procedures
Consequences of Bad Hires
involves relocating business functions and processes overseas. The off shored function can remain within the business (with overseas operations)
outsourced to an overseas organization known as offshore outsourcing.
Discuss the constraints and opportunities presented by
demographic change
Discuss the significance of
labour mobility
and new communication technologies
Analyse the
workforce planning process
Evaluate strategies for
developing future human resources
Discuss different methods of
recruitment, training, appraisal
Describe reasons for and consequences of
changing work patterns
Analyse the consequences of
changing work patterns and practices
Examine how recruitment, training and appraisal can help achieve
workforce planning targets
outsourcing, off-shoring
as human resource strategies
Discuss how in
novation, ethical considerations
can influence human resource practices and strategies.
Key CUEGIS Concepts :-
Human resource
impact on hrm strategies.
Full transcript