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Genetics Simplified

A presentation for seventh graders
by

Danielle Currey, ND

on 21 December 2014

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Transcript of Genetics Simplified

Genetics Demystified
Everything starts with DNA
What is it all about?
A presentation by
Danielle Currey
Genes are segments of DNA that code for different proteins.
Proteins do all the work in the cell.
Genes
Genotype
A gene will determine what protein is made.

This is called a genotype
A protein will determine what happens: Can you curl your tongue?


This is called a phenotype.
Phenotype
DNA can be divided into genes. DNA can also be divided into chromosomes.

Here is one way to look at it:
What is a Gene Exactly?
An analogy
DNA is the school. (what you start with)

A chromosome is a classroom. (an organized piece of the whole)

A gene is a student. (a unit with a job to do)

The student’s work is the protein. (the job that is done)
We get one gene from each parent making a pair.

The genes are on our chromosomes, so we get one chromosome from each of our parents.

Our parents have paired chromosomes too, but we only get one of them from each.

Which one will we get? This is randomly decided during cell division.
Inheritance
We have two copies of each gene, but they don't both work at the same time.

One will always be top dog and express itself (AKA make its protein)

Genes can be dominant and always express when they are around,
or they can be recessive and only express when there isn't a dominant gene around to shut it up.
Which gene gets to make its protein?
Separating the Genes
Cellular Division
Mitosis is how I make my toes.
This is everyday cell division.
One cell becomes two.
Growth and repair occur this way.

Ready?

Here we go...
Let's start with the easiest one...
Mitosis
STEP ONE
The DNA unzips and a new strand is created on each exposed side.
The DNA duplicates. Now there are two copies. One for each cell that will be created in the end.
The chromosomes line up getting ready to go to opposite sides of the cell. They are getting ready for the cell to split up.
STEP TWO
The copies of chromosomes divide and go to separate sides of the cell.
STEP THREE
Anaphase
Metaphase
Prophase
The chromosomes each go to separate sides of the cell and the cell divides.
STEP FOUR
Telophase
The cells complete their division. The result is two genetically identical cells.
STEP FIVE
Cytokinesis
Mitosis one more time...
And now Meiosis
How my parents made me.
The difference between Mitosis and meiosis is that there is a second division in meiosis. You end up with 4 cells that only have half of the chromosomes that the starting cell had. Remember that you get one chromosome from each parent? This is how that happens.
Overview of meiosis vs mitosis
STEP ONE
The DNA doubles
STEP TWO
Prophase I
Metaphase I
The chromosomes line up
STEP THREE
Anaphase I
The chromosomes separate and move to separate sides of the cell
STEP FOUR
Telophase I
The cells divide for the first time
STEP FIVE
Prophase II
The cells gets ready for another division.

The chromosomes do not replicate again.
STEP SIX
remember there are two cells now
Metaphase II
The chromosomes line up
STEP SEVEN
STEP EIGHT
The cells go through one final division. There are now 4 cells each with 1 copy of each chromosome; there are no pairs.
REVIEW
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