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askar askar

on 28 March 2013

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Transcript of ASKAR

done by:Temirbayev Askar and Karakulov Oljas Photosynthesis and respiration The radiant energy from the sun is used in the production of both the structural and energy .It can not,however,be used directly to fuel the life of an organism.It must first be transformed into another usable form of energy. It may be transmitted if the matter is transparent. photosynthesis Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which plants,some bacteria,and some protists use the energy in sunlight to produse sugar,which is used in cellular respiration to produse ATP. Only a fraction of this energy reaches the earth and less than 2% is utilised by photosynthesising autorophs to form the chemical bonds of complex molecules. The light energy on which all life on earth depends is obtained by the conversion of hydrogen into helium atoms inside the sun Photosynthesis is the production of organic compounds and O2 from water and CO2. Energy from sunlight is used in the presense of chlorophyll. Approximately 200 billion tons of organic molecules are synthesised by photosynthetic organisms every year Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are reversible reactions and are closely interrelated.The products of photosynthesis,namely organic compounds and O2,are used by both the plant and its consumers during respiration.During this reaction CO2,H2O and energy in the form of ATP are released.Both CO2 and H2O then become available for futher photosynthetic reactions. Necessary factors for photosynthesis 1.light Light is a radiant form of energy and can be thought of as consisting of many particles or photons.The photon theory states that a photoncarries a unit of energy known as a quantum.The energy of a quantum of light is inversely proportional to its wavelength.When a light wave hits matter,it produces one or a combination of three results: It may be reflected It may be absorbed 2.Chloroplasts and chlorophyll Chloroplast are organelles found in plant cells and some other eukaryotic organisms. Their functions include conducting photosynthesis, and in some algae, lipid synthesis.Photosynthesis is their main function, where chloroplasts capture the sun's light energy, and store it in the energy storage molecules ATP and NADPH while breaking down water molecules. Chloroplasts are disc-shaped ans are composed of two portions,the stroma and grana .The stroma is the fluid portion of the chloroplast and contains ribosomes,DNA,RNA and enzymes.Within each chloroplast is a system of internal membranes. A stack of thyalakoids is known as granum.The grana are interrelated by interlamellar structures. Chlorophyll Chlorophyll plays an important role in the absorption of light energy during photosynthesis.Its role is to catalyse the transference of radiant energy into chemical energy in a molecular form. Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.Chlorophyll is an extremely important biomolecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light. Chlorophyll absorbs light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, followed by the red portion. However, it is a poor absorber of green and near-green portions of the spectrum, hence the green color of chlorophyll-containing tissues.Chlorophyll was first isolated by Joseph Bienaimé Caventou and Pierre Joseph Pelletier in 1817. Autotrophs produce their own food from CO2 and other inorganic raw materials obtained from the environment.Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere and they are ultimate source of food for all nonautotrophic organisms The structure of chlorophyll Each chlorophyll molecule is composed of four rings containing carbon (C),hydrogen (H),oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N).Each forms a complex with a central magnesium (Mg). Chlorophyll a:C55 H72 O5 N4 Mg Chlorophyll b:C55 H70 O6 N4 Mg Chlorophyll a is the main pigment that initiates the light-dependent reactions.Chlorophyll b is an accessory pigment that also participates in photosynthesis.Furthermore,chlorophyll a is blue-green in colour while chlorophyll b is yellow-green. + Chloroplasts also have other accessory photosynthetic pigments,such as carotenoids.They can funnel the energy from other wavelengths to chlorophyll a and also participate in photoprotection against excessive light Some give colour to flowers and fruits.Examples of these pigments include carotene (orange),xanthophyll (yellow) and licopine (red).Other pigments include phycoerthyrin of red algae and phycocyanin of blue-green algae. Photosynthetic reactions Photosynthetic involves a series of chemical reactions.Photosynthesis transfers electrons from H2O to CO2 molecules,forming sugar molecules. This electron transfer is an oxidation-reduction process: the water is oxidised and the CO2 is redused .Its consists of two main stages,light phase and dark phase.In the light phase,light energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP.In the dark phase,products of the light phase are used to combine carbon dioxide to produce sugar molecules. Thank you for watching Light reaction Light Reactions requires the direct energy of light to make energy carrier molecules that are used in the second process. The Light Reactions occur in the grana In the light reaction slight strikes chlorophyll a in such a way as to excite electrons to a higher energy state. In a series of reactions the energy is converted Water is split in the process, releasing oxygen as a by-product of the reaction. Dark reaction The ATP and NADPH are used to make C-C bonds in the dark reactionsIn the dark reactions, carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is captured and modified by the addition of Hydrogen to form carbohydrates (general formula of carbohydrates is [CH2O]n). The incorporation of carbon dioxide into organic compounds is known as carbon fixation. The energy for this comes from the first phase of the photosynthetic process. Living systems cannot directly utilize light energy, but can, through a complicated series of reactions, convert it into C-C bond energy that can be released by glycolysis and other metabolic processes.
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