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Evaluation at A2
Transcript of Evaluation at A2
Population Validity: Extraneous
Variables: Participant variables:
Participant effects: Methodology Activity: Complete the table in the booklet! Approaches Bio Psychodynamic Cognitive Behavioural Activity Biological cause
- all thoughts feelings and behaviour have a biological cause
- Biochemistry imbalance
- Brain damage
- Infection Unconscious mind influences behaviour
- Childhood experiences drive behaviour
- Id, Ego,Superego, psychodynamic conflict
- Psychosexual stages
- Behaviour influenced by emotional drives Behaviour is learned
- Tabula rasa
- Operant conditioning
- Classical conditioning
- Behaviour is determined by the environment.
- We should only study observable behaviour. Internal mental processes control behaviour
- Humans are like computers processing information
- irrational thoughts influence behaviour
- focus on creating models to explain behaviour (e.g. MSM) Gender Bias Culture Bias Animal Research Ethical Issues Occurs when a study uses participants from only one gender but assumes the findings apply to both genders. This is an example of gender bias.
Gender bias also occurs if a theory suggests one gender is better than another (eg Freud’s claim that women were less morally developed than men) Occurs when people of one culture make assumptions about the behaviour of people from another culture based on their own cultural norms.
Most psychological research reflects western culture (researchers and participants) but is represented as a universal descriptor of human behaviour An ethical issue is a conflict between what the researcher wants and the rights of participants (eg deception necessary to avoid demand characteristics but leads to lack of informed consent).
Some research is socially sensitive (has potential social consequences (eg IQ research/race) Used when procedures would be unethical on humans.
Important to distinguish between naturalistic observation (little harm) and experiments (distress/permanent harm) Is it morally right or scientifically appropriate to use animals in research? Why might it be an issue that the values of some cultures are not considered in psychological research Why might it reduce the validity of research if we focus our investigation on only one gender? What ethical issues can you remember from AS? Free will suggests we are capable of actively choosing how to behave (eg behaviour is not in response to internal or external pressures).
Whereas determinism is the view that someone’s behaviour is shaped or controlled by internal or external forces rather than their will to do something. Free will vs Determinism Breaking down complex behaviour into simple explanations (eg suggesting aggression is learned through reinforcement, association or is imitated)
Reductionist explanations prevent psychologists from looking for alternative explanations for behaviour. Reductionist Nature/Nurture Scientific? People are either (mainly) the product of their genes and biology (nature) or of their environment (nurture) For psychology to be considered a science it needs to display all the features of science.
Falsifiability What are the characteristics of science?
Do you think that psychology has these characteristics? Match the evaluation point to the debate. Activity Identify different types of evaluation points and highlight them in different colours:
- Issues and debates Activity Sort the evaluation points under the appropriate headings. Biological, Cognitive, Psychodynamic or Behavioural Activity Identify the methodological issues for each of the studies listed. Can you think of problems with Asch's study? The problem's you've identified are called methodological issues and they are a way to evaluate at A2