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Cell Biology Concept Map

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Moira Murdoch

on 5 October 2015

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Transcript of Cell Biology Concept Map

The contents of a chloroplast are partitioned from the cytosol by an envelope consisting of two membranes separated by a very narrow intermembrane space.
Interconnected sacs called thylakoids are stacked into what is called a granum.
The fluid outside the thylakoids is the stroma, which contains the enzymes, ribosomes, and chloroplast DNA.
Mainly composed of lipids and proteins.
Function
Chloroplasts convert light energy to chemical energy during photosynthesis.
Chloroplasts generate lipid components and amino acids that are necessary in chloroplast membrane production.
Structure
Intermediate Filaments
composed of fibrous proteins coiled into cables.
These are in the middle size range between microtubules and microfilaments.
The main functions include maintenance of cell shape (tension-bearing elements), anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles, formation of nuclear lamina.
Microfilaments
Two intertwined strands of actin (the protein subunits).
These are the thinnest of the three types of fibers.
Main functions include maintenance of cell shape (tension-bearing elements), changes in cell shape, muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells, cell motility, and division of animal cells.
Microtubules
Hollow tubes composed of tubulin polymers.
These are the thickest of the three types of fibers.
The main functions of microtubules include maintenance of cell shape (compression-reting "girders"), cell motility, cromosome movements in cell division, and organelle movements.
Chloroplasts
Cytoskeleton
Concept Map
Extracellular Matrix
Cell Junctions
Golgi Apparatus
Lysosomes
Digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed.
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes
Hydrolytic enzymes and lysosomal membrane made by rough ER then transferred to Golgi
Phagocytosis- engulf and digest materials in cell
Autophagy- recycles the cells own organic material (including damaged organelles)
Active in synthesis, modification, sorting, and secretion of cell products
Consists of cisternae
Cis face and Trans face
Products of ER modified in Golgi: glycoproteins to carbohydrates, membrane phospholipids
Also processes polysaccharides
Cisternal Maturation Model- cisternae progress from cis to trans
Nucleolus
Can be multiple in one nucleus
Direct proteins to be changed into ribosomes
Chromosomes
Carry the genetic information
Nucleus

Nuclear Envelope
Contains most of the genes in eukaryotic cells
Averages 5 micrometers in diameter
Directs protein synthesis through synthesizing mRNA
Contain chromatin: one long DNA molecules associated with many proteins
Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
Provides directions for its own replication
Anti-Parallel Double Helix
Polymers- polynucleotides (each nucleotide only has one phosphate group, through dehydration reaction- phosphodiester linkage; creates sugar-phosphate backbone)
Monomers- nucleotides (nitrogenous base [pyrimidines- cytosine, thymine; purines-adenine, guanine] pentose, and one or more phosphate groups)
Directs RNA synthesis as part of gene expression
Proteins
Monomers- amino acids (each composed of amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon, hydrogen atom, R group)
Proteins help coil the DNA molecule in each chromosome (allowing them to fit inside the nucleus)
4 levels of protein structure- primary, secondary, teritiary, quaternary
Polymers-polypeptides (peptide bonds between carboxyl of one amino acid and amino group of another- dehydration- forms polypeptide backbone with N-terminus and C-terminus
Polymers- polynucleotides (each nucleotide only has one phosphate group, through dehydration reaction- phosphodiester linkage; creates sugar-phosphate backbone)
Monomers- nucleotides (nitrogenous base [pyrimidines- cytosine, uracil; purines-adenine, guanine] pentose, and one or more phosphate groups)
Ribose Nucleic Acid
Synthesized from instructions from DNA
Both messenger and ribosomal types
Proteins
Monomers- amino acids (each composed of amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon, hydrogen atom, R group)
Proteins turned into large/small subunits to assemble into a ribosome, sent out into cytoplasm
4 levels of protein structure- primary, secondary, teritiary, quaternary
Polymers-polypeptides (peptide bonds between carboxyl of one amino acid and amino group of another- dehydration- forms polypeptide backbone with N-terminus and C-terminus
Pore Complex- lines each pore, regulates entry and exit of
proteins, RNAs, macromolecules
Matrix/Lamina may help organize
genetic material
Nuclear matrix-
protein
fibers extending through
nuclear interior
Lined by nuclear lamina- netlike group of
protein filaments
that maintain shape of nucleus
Perforated by pore structures-
100 nanometers in diameter
Double membrane- each
lipid bilayer
with
proteins
, separated by 20-40 nm
A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that extend throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical, transport, and signaling functions.
Cell motility generally requires interaction of the cytoskeleton with motor proteins. Cytoskeletal elements and motor proteins work together with plasma membrane molecules to allow whole cells to move along fibers outside the cell.
The surrounding of animal cells.
Consisting of glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and proteoglycans synthesized and secreted by cells.
Some cells are attached to the ECM by glycoproteins such as
fibroconectin
Fibroconectin and other ECM proteins bind to cell-surface receptor proteins called
integrins
that are built into the plasma membrane
integrins
are in a position to transmit signals between the ECM and the cytoskeleton and thus to integrate changes occurring outside and inside the cell
Information about the ECM reaches the nucleus by a combination of mechanical and chemical signaling pathways.
Mechanical signaling involves fibroconnectin, integrins, and microfilaments of the cytoskeleton
Changes in the cytoskeleton may in turn trigger chemical signaling pathways inside the cell, leading to changes in the set of proteins being made by the cell and therefore changes in the cell's function.
Each of the two membranes enclosing the mitochondrion is a phopholipid bilayer with a unique collection of embedded proteins.
The inner membrane is convoluted with infoldings called cristae.
The mitochondrial matrix is enclosed by the inner membrane and contains enzymes and substrates for the citric acid cycle, as well as ribosomes and DNA.
Composed of phospholipids and proteins.
Function
The mitochondrion is the site of cellular respiration.
Through cellular respiration, ATP is produced which provides energy for cells.
Mitochondria help the cells to maintain proper concentration of calcium ions within the compartments of the cell.
Mitochondria also play a role in apoptosis.
Structure
Mitochondria
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Rough ER
Smooth ER
Ribosomes
Carry out protein synthesis
Not membrane bound
Can be free or bound
Polymers- polynucleotides (each nucleotide only has one phosphate group, through dehydration reaction- phosphodiester linkage; creates sugar-phosphate backbone)
Monomers- nucleotides (nitrogenous base [pyrimidines- cytosine, uracil; purines-adenine, guanine] pentose, and one or more phosphate groups)
Ribose Nucleic Acid
Synthesized from instructions from DNA
Both messenger and ribosomal types
Proteins
Monomers- amino acids (each composed of amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon, hydrogen atom, R group)
Proteins turned into large/small subunits to assemble into a ribosome, sent out into cytoplasm
4 levels of protein structure- primary, secondary, teritiary, quaternary
Polymers-polypeptides (peptide bonds between carboxyl of one amino acid and amino group of another- dehydration- forms polypeptide backbone with N-terminus and C-terminus
Ribosomes
Carry out protein synthesis
Not membrane bound
Can be free or bound
Polymers- polynucleotides (each nucleotide only has one phosphate group, through dehydration reaction- phosphodiester linkage; creates sugar-phosphate backbone)
Monomers- nucleotides (nitrogenous base [pyrimidines- cytosine, uracil; purines-adenine, guanine] pentose, and one or more phosphate groups)
Ribose Nucleic Acid
Synthesized from instructions from DNA
Both messenger and ribosomal types
Proteins
Monomers- amino acids (each composed of amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon, hydrogen atom, R group)
Proteins turned into large/small subunits to assemble into a ribosome, sent out into cytoplasm
4 levels of protein structure- primary, secondary, teritiary, quaternary
Polymers-polypeptides (peptide bonds between carboxyl of one amino acid and amino group of another- dehydration- forms polypeptide backbone with N-terminus and C-terminus
Ribosomes
Carry out protein synthesis
Not membrane bound
Can be free or bound
Polymers- polynucleotides (each nucleotide only has one phosphate group, through dehydration reaction- phosphodiester linkage; creates sugar-phosphate backbone)
Monomers- nucleotides (nitrogenous base [pyrimidines- cytosine, uracil; purines-adenine, guanine] pentose, and one or more phosphate groups)
Ribose Nucleic Acid
Synthesized from instructions from DNA
Both messenger and ribosomal types
Proteins
Monomers- amino acids (each composed of amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon, hydrogen atom, R group)
Proteins turned into large/small subunits to assemble into a ribosome, sent out into cytoplasm
4 levels of protein structure- primary, secondary, teritiary, quaternary
Polymers-polypeptides (peptide bonds between carboxyl of one amino acid and amino group of another- dehydration- forms polypeptide backbone with N-terminus and C-terminus
More than half of total membrane in eukaryotic cells
Made of cisternae (membranous tubules and sacs)
Smooth or Rough
Metabolic processes:
Synthesis of lipids
Metabolism of carbohydrates
Detoxification of drugs and poisons
Storage of calcium ions
Full of enzymes and calcium ions
Secretary protein production
Most of these proteins are
glycoproteins
(proteins with carbohydrates covalently bonded to them)
Makes membrane for the cell
Adds membrane proteins and phospholipids to its membrane
Makes membrane
phospholipids
with enzymes
Transported in vesicles out of the cell
Chain is threaded into ER lumen
Polypeptide chain folds into functional shape
Ribosome creates polypeptide chain
Proteins
Monomers- amino acids (each composed of amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon, hydrogen atom, R group)
Proteins turned into large/small subunits to assemble into a ribosome, sent out into cytoplasm
4 levels of protein structure- primary, secondary, teritiary, quaternary
Polymers-polypeptides (peptide bonds between carboxyl of one amino acid and amino group of another- dehydration- forms polypeptide backbone with N-terminus and C-terminus
Lipids
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
Monomer- monosaccharides (carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl groups, can be aldose or ketose)
Polymer-polysaccharides (can be disaccharide, joined by glycosidic linkagesk
Functions- storage and structural
Monomer- monosaccharides (carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl groups, can be aldose or ketose)
Polymer-polysaccharides (can be disaccharide, joined by glycosidic linkagesk
Functions- storage and structural
Hydrophobic
Diverse group
No specific monomer
Fats- glycerol and fatty acids, saturated or unsaturated
Phospholipids- only 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol, hydrocarbon tail-hydrophobic, hydrophilic head-hydrophylic
Carbohydrates
Monomer- monosaccharides (carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl groups, can be aldose or ketose)
Polymer-polysaccharides (can be disaccharide, joined by glycosidic linkagesk
Functions- storage and structural
Proteins
Monomers- amino acids (each composed of amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon, hydrogen atom, R group)
Proteins turned into large/small subunits to assemble into a ribosome, sent out into cytoplasm
4 levels of protein structure- primary, secondary, teritiary, quaternary
Polymers-polypeptides (peptide bonds between carboxyl of one amino acid and amino group of another- dehydration- forms polypeptide backbone with N-terminus and C-terminus
Proteins
Monomers- amino acids (each composed of amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon, hydrogen atom, R group)
Proteins turned into large/small subunits to assemble into a ribosome, sent out into cytoplasm
4 levels of protein structure- primary, secondary, teritiary, quaternary
Polymers-polypeptides (peptide bonds between carboxyl of one amino acid and amino group of another- dehydration- forms polypeptide backbone with N-terminus and C-terminus
Proteins
Monomers- amino acids (each composed of amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon, hydrogen atom, R group)
Proteins turned into large/small subunits to assemble into a ribosome, sent out into cytoplasm
4 levels of protein structure- primary, secondary, teritiary, quaternary
Polymers-polypeptides (peptide bonds between carboxyl of one amino acid and amino group of another- dehydration- forms polypeptide backbone with N-terminus and C-terminus
Plasma Membrane
Ribosomes
Carry out protein synthesis
Not membrane bound
Can be free or bound
Polymers- polynucleotides (each nucleotide only has one phosphate group, through dehydration reaction- phosphodiester linkage; creates sugar-phosphate backbone)
Monomers- nucleotides (nitrogenous base [pyrimidines- cytosine, uracil; purines-adenine, guanine] pentose, and one or more phosphate groups)
Ribose Nucleic Acid
Synthesized from instructions from DNA
Both messenger and ribosomal types
Proteins
Monomers- amino acids (each composed of amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon, hydrogen atom, R group)
Proteins turned into large/small subunits to assemble into a ribosome, sent out into cytoplasm
4 levels of protein structure- primary, secondary, teritiary, quaternary
Polymers-polypeptides (peptide bonds between carboxyl of one amino acid and amino group of another- dehydration- forms polypeptide backbone with N-terminus and C-terminus
Proteins
Monomers- amino acids (each composed of amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon, hydrogen atom, R group)
Proteins turned into large/small subunits to assemble into a ribosome, sent out into cytoplasm
4 levels of protein structure- primary, secondary, teritiary, quaternary
Polymers-polypeptides (peptide bonds between carboxyl of one amino acid and amino group of another- dehydration- forms polypeptide backbone with N-terminus and C-terminus
Carbohydrates
Monomer- monosaccharides (carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl groups, can be aldose or ketose)
Polymer-polysaccharides (can be disaccharide, joined by glycosidic linkagesk
Functions- storage and structural
Surrounds the nucleus
Mitochondria and chloroplasts display similarities with bacteria that led to the endosymbiont theory
An organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
Mitochondria are the sites of cellular repiration, the metabolic process that uses oxygen to drive the generation of ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
Cell junctions allow for neighboring cells to adhere, interact and communicate via sites of direct physical contact.
Plasmodesmata
Tight Junctions
Desmosomes
Gap Junctions
An open channel through the cell wall that connects the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells, allowing water, small solutes, and some larger molecules to pass between the cells.
Proteins
Monomers- amino acids (each composed of amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon, hydrogen atom, R group)
Proteins turned into large/small subunits to assemble into a ribosome, sent out into cytoplasm
4 levels of protein structure- primary, secondary, teritiary, quaternary
Polymers-polypeptides (peptide bonds between carboxyl of one amino acid and amino group of another- dehydration- forms polypeptide backbone with N-terminus and C-terminus
At tight junctions, the plasma membranes of neighboring cells are very tightly pressed against each other, bound together by proteins
Tight junctions establish a barrier that prevents leakage of extracellular leakage of extracellular fluid across a layer of epithelial cells.
Desmosomes function like rivets, fastening cells together into strong sheets.
Intermediate filaments made of sturdy keratin proteins anchor desmosome in the cytoplasm.
For example, muscle cells are attached to other muscle cells through desmosomes.
Proteins
Monomers- amino acids (each composed of amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon, hydrogen atom, R group)
Proteins turned into large/small subunits to assemble into a ribosome, sent out into cytoplasm
4 levels of protein structure- primary, secondary, teritiary, quaternary
Polymers-polypeptides (peptide bonds between carboxyl of one amino acid and amino group of another- dehydration- forms polypeptide backbone with N-terminus and C-terminus
Lipids
Carbohydrates
Monomer- monosaccharides (carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl groups, can be aldose or ketose)
Polymer-polysaccharides (can be disaccharide, joined by glycosidic linkagesk
Functions- storage and structural
Hydrophobic
Diverse group
No specific monomer
Fats- glycerol and fatty acids, saturated or unsaturated
Phospholipids- only 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol, hydrocarbon tail-hydrophobic, hydrophilic head-hydrophylic
Consists of a phospholipid bilayer
Gajunctions provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell.
Most like the plasmodesmata of plants.
Gap junctions consist of membrane proteins that surround a pore through which ions, sugars, amino acids, and other small molecules may pass.
Necessary for communication between cells in many types of tissues.
The hydrophilic heads of the bilayer along with the hydrophobic tails make the cell selectively permeable
Like the lipids, most proteins in the membrane are also amphipathic
According to fluid mosaic model, mosaic of proteins in a fluid phospholipid bilayer
Proteins and lipids seem to form defined regions that have certain specialties
Held together by hydrophobic reactions (weak)
Some proteins held immobile by cytoskeleton or extracellular matrix
Unsaturated hydrocarbon tails on phospholipids make membrane more resistant to cold temperatures because of bend in shape
Cholesterol also makes membrane more consistently fluid at different temperatures
Fluidity of the membrane is important to its functions of permeability and the movement of the proteins attached to the membrane
Crucial in cell-cell recognition (done by binding to carbohydrates of molecules forming glycolipids and glycoproteins
Distinct inside and outside faces because of lipid composition of different layers and the orientation of the proteins in the membrane
Transport proteins in membrane: Channel proteins and carrier proteins (shape of proteins determines which kind)
Membrane also has ion channels (many gated channels)
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