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Int2 chemistry unit 2

Teaching prezi for organic chemistry Scottish Intermediate 2 (ages 13-16)
by

Mr Owens

on 14 July 2013

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Transcript of Int2 chemistry unit 2

Give the full structural formulae and molecular formulae for:

Methanoic acid
Propanoic acid
Butanoic acid
Octanoic acid
Drawing alkanes
Monkey Eats Peanut Butter, Peter Hates His Orange
Methane
Ethane
Propane
Butane
Pentane
Hexane
Heptane
Octane
Methyl
Ethyl
Branches
Steps to drawing an alkane
1.
Look for the longest carbon chain
2.
Number the C atoms in the chain starting at the end nearer a branch.
3.
Identify the branches and arrange them in alphabetical order. e.g. naming puts ethyl before methyl. If there are two or more of each branch then name them di. tri. etc.
4.
Identify the carbon number on the main chain where the branch is
2-methylbutane
2-ethyl-3-methylhexane
Show-me board examples
3-methylhexane
2,2-dimethylpentane
In pairs: take turns to work out these examples
3-ethylhexane
2,2,4-trimethylpentane
2-ethyl,3-methylheptane
4,4-dimethyloctane
(Both of you write the answers in your jotter)
Naming alkanes
Similar to drawing
Steps of naming alkanes
1 - Identify longest chain
2 - Identify branches
3 - Write where the branches go
lowest numbers first
commas separate numbers (e.g. 2,4)
dashes spearate letters from numbers (e.g. 2-me)
use di-, tri- etc. to show how many branches there are if more than one of same type (diethyl, trimethyl etc.)
Rules
2,3-dimethylpentane
CH
2
3
CH
CH
CH
CH
CH
2
3
3
a)
2-methylpentane
CH
3
CH
CH
CH
CH
3
3
b)
2,3-dimethylbutane
CH
3
CH
CH
CH
CH
CH
2
3
3
c)
3-methylhexane
CH
2
3
CH
CH
CH
CH
CH
2
3
3
f)
2-methyl-3-ethylhexane
CH
2
3
CH
CH
CH
CH
CH
3
3
h)
2,3-dimethylpentane
3
CH
CH
3
C
CH
CH
CH
3
3
d)
2,2-dimethylbutane
3
CH
2
CH
3
C
CH
CH
CH
3
3
e)
2,2-dimethylpentane
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
2
CH
CH
2
CH
3
CH
2
3
CH
CH
CH
CH
CH
2
3
3
g)
2-methyl-3-ethylhexane
CH
3
2
CH
CH
2
Alkenes
The alkenes are a
homologous series
of hydrocarbons
They are all molecules of carbon and hydrogen which contain ONE
double carbon to carbon
covalent bond
The first member of the cycloalkanes is cyclopropane C H .
The general formula of the
cycloalkanes
is
C H
C
C
3
6
C H
C H
3
6
4
8
C H
4
8
2,2-dimethylpentane
CH
CH
2
2
C
C
H
H
H
CH
CH
2
CH
CH
2
2
CH
3
CH
CH
3
CH
CH
3
CH
CH
3
C
H
H
C
C
H
H
H
C
H
H
H
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
H
H
H
C
H
H
C
H
H
H
Cycloalkanes
The cycloalkanes are a
homologous series
of hydrocarbons
They are all molecules of carbon and hydrogen which contain a
ring
of carbons joined together by
single bonds
.
C
C
n
2n
C
This is the same as the
alkenes
C H
3
4
5
6
6
8
10
12
C H
C H
C H
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
H
H
C
C
H
H
H
H
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
Isomers
e.g. Propene and cyclopropane
Both have the molecular formula:
C H
But have different structures
They have the same number of carbons and hydrogens as each other, but different shape.
Branched alkanes can also be examples of isomers
Isomers have the same
molecular formula
, and different
structural formula
.
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
H
H
H
C
H
H
H
3
6
The first member of the alkenes is ethene C H .
The general formula of the
alkenes
is
C H
2
4
n
2n
For every carbon in an alkene, there are two hydrogens.
Alkanols
The 2nd member in the alkanols is
Ethanol
Full structural formula:
C H OH
Look like Alkanes but contain a
Hydroxyl
(
-
O
-
H) group.

Same names as alkanes but end in
–OL
.

Only difference from alkanes:

-
H atom been replaced by
-
OH group.

Identify an alkanol by its name ending in –ol and the presence of –OH group
Shortened structural formula:
Molecular formula:
2
5
CH CH OH
3
2
C
C
H
H
H
H
O
H
H
1 - Look for the longest carbon atom chain containing the –OH group to give the alkane name.

2 - Remove the –e ending of the alkane and replace with an –ol.

3 - The carbon chain is numbered from the end that gives the smaller number to the –OH group.

4 - For chains of 3 or more carbons the position of the –OH group must be given.
Naming alkanols
C
C
H
H
H
H
O
H
C
H
H
H
C
C
H
H
H
H
O
H
C
H
H
H
Examples
1
2
3
3
2
1
Propan-1-ol
Propan-2-ol
C
C
H
H
H
H
O
H
C
H
H
H
3
2
1
Pentan-2-ol
C
H
H
C
H
H
4
5
The general formula of the
alkanols
is
C H OH
n
2n+1
Alkanoic
Acids
Full structural formula:
Look like Alkanes but contain a
carboxyl
(-COOH) group.





Same names as alkanes but end in
-oic acid
.

Only difference from alkanes:

-
CH group been replaced by
-
COOH group.
Molecular formula:
CH COOH
3
C
C
H
H
O
H
H
Naming alkanoic acids
The general formula of the
alkanoic acids
is
C H COOH
n
2n+1
3
C
O
O
H
1 - Count the number of atoms in the carbon chain to give the name of the alkane to use.

2 - Remove the –e ending of the alkane and replace it with –oic acid.
Ethanoic acid
O
Task
Organic Chemistry
Intermediate 2 Chemistry Unit 2:
Carbon Compounds
Functional groups
A
functional group
is the part of an organic (carbon-containing) molecule that gives it it's
function
: i.e. whether it is an alkene, an alkanol etc.
Functional groups we have looked at so far are:
Alkenes
double bond
C C
Alkanol
Hydroxyl group
OH
Alkanoic acid
Carboxyl group
OH
C
O
Esters
Esters are made from the condensation reaction between alkanols and alkanoic acids.
A condensation reaction is one in which two molecules are joined together by removing water (H from one, OH from the other)
In this case, the OH is removed from the alkanoic acid, and the H from the alkanol.
C
C
H
H
O
H
H
O
C
C
H
H
O
H
H
H
H
C
C
H
H
O
H
H
H
C
C
H
H
H
O
H O
2
+
acid
alkanol
ester
Water
The functional group of an ester is the
ester link
O
C
O
Naming esters
1 - The names for esters are based on the
alkanol
and
alkanoic acid
from which they are made.

2 - Part of the name comes from the
alkanol
and part from the
alkanoic acid.

3 - Esters names are therefore usually written as two words of the type
alkyl

alkanoate.

4 - The
alkyl
part comes from the
alkanol
and the
alkanoate
part comes from the
alkanoic acid.
e.g.
Methanol
produces
methyl
esters.

Methanoic

acid
produces
methanoate
esters.

Together they would make the ester
methyl

methanoate
Name the esters that the following alkanols and alkanoic acids would produce
Propanol & Ethanoic acid


Butanol & Pentanioc acid
Propanoic acid & Methanol


Methanoic acid & Pentanol
Butanol & Butanoic acid


Octanol & Octanoic acid


Ethanoic acid & Heptanol
Reactions of organic compounds
Addition reactions
When 2 or more molecules join to produce a single larger molecule and
nothing else.
All the atoms from
both
reactants will be in the product molecule. There are the same total number of bonds in products and reactants.
Adding bromine (bromination)
The double bond in alkenes are good targets for addition reactions.
Carbon-compounds with
double bonds
are called
unsaturated
.

If a carbon-compound
does not
have any double bonds, it is called
saturated
.
C
H
Br
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
Br
Step 1: double bond breaks to open single bond
C
H
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
H
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
H
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
Step 2: bromine atoms add on
Br
Br
Adding water (hydration)
OH
H
C
H
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
H
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
Alkene + Water
H
OH
Alkanol
Adding hydrogen (hydrogenation)
H
H
C
H
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
H
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
Alkene + Hydrogen
H
H
Corresponding alkane
dibromoalkane
Ethanol
Ethanol is the alcohol that is in alcoholic drinks
It is made by a process called
fermentation
Enzymes in yeast break down sugars exothermically and produce ethanol and carbon dioxide
C H O
C H OH
CO
+
Glucose
ethanol
Carbon dioxide
6
12
6
2
5
2
Fermentation can only produce alcohol contents of up to 12%.
this includes beer and wine
the reson for this is the yeast cells get killed
o
Spirits like vodka and whisky (both ~40% alcohol content) are concentrated by distillation
Ethanol boils at 79 C
Industrial ethanol
On an industrial scale, ethanol is produced by the addition of water to ethene using a catalyst
The addition of water is called
hydration
Ethanol can also undergo the opposite reaction.
Passed over a hot catalyst, it can be
back into ethene and water
dehydrated
Condenstaion reactions
Condenstation reactions are when two molecules are joined together with the removal of water.
Example?
Synthetic materials
Plastics are made from chemicals derived from crude oil.

They are called , which means man-made.

Sometimes natural materials are better than synthetic - e.g. people prefer silk ties to polyester!
Polymers and Monomers
Plastics are examples of
A is a very long molecule made up of smaller molecules joined together

The smaller molecules that get joined up are called

polymers
polymer
monomers
Addition polymers
These are polymers that are formed by
of
addition reactions
unsaturated organic compounds
e.g.
monomer
polymer
ethene
poly(ethene)
synthetic
Full transcript