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MAN IN SEARCH OF HUMAN VALUES
Transcript of MAN IN SEARCH OF HUMAN VALUES
"supreme form of the good"- good or value as the culmination of the world of ideas
it is the constructive principle on which the world organizes all its societies and laws Aristotle: Value Equals Goodness when faced with the question of values, was frequently inconsistent and even incoherent
an intoxication with facts
"What is good?" and "How do I obtain it?"
"the good is ordered to one end" that is God St. Thomas Aquinas: A Fusion doctrine of the transcendentals
he affirmed that goodness and being are the same and differ only in idea.
he did the work of fusion and development of Platonic and Aristotelian principles The Modern Philosophers: Neutrality to Values value has been considered that which directs man to lead a good life
Brentano worked within an Aristotelian-Thomistic framework
Rene Descartes most influential works are accordingly empty of value considerations
Kant- "the only thing morally valuable was the good will" Contemporary Philosophers: Value Opposed to Being R.H. Lotze (1817-81)- father of contemporary philosophy of values (neokantian philosophy and phenomenological philosophy of value.
F.W. Nietzsche (1844-1900)- famous for his human concern and transvaluation of values
Pragmatism- Philosophical movement by Charles Pierce, John Dewey, and John L. Childs in 1890's, value is dependent on experience
Naturalists- "values are always relative because the most a man can determine is how best he can do under a particular set of circumstances.
Existentialism: Sensitivity to Human Values rejects the traditional values which philosophers regarded as sufficient for a complete and fully satisfying life
that state of happiness is not only impossible of achievement but also, when achieved, would reduce us to the state of unconscious brutes
they discover value in suffering and struggle
the supreme value in life is intensity, as manifested in acts of free choice, individual self-assertion, personal love, or creative work Psychoanalysis: A Subjective Analysis of Values A whole new series of new questions arising in the past century: "How objective or subjective is a man's value system?"
"What is the relationship between a man's values and his own self-realization of them?"
"Can value-clarifying occur without a discussion of the intrinsic worth of certain values?"
"What is the relationship of personal values and human growth?"
"What is the place of value formation in educational process?" John Dewey and Jean Piaget: Value Experiencing Dewey- the experiencing child discovers values in nature
Piaget- probably the most influential developmental psychologist in the area of education today.
- the whole developmental process of the child is related to the whole development of the self
-both of them held that the child learns his values from his experiences with other people
Karl Marx's Labor Theory of Value The Marxian Philosophy has for its sources the Capital (1867) and the Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848)
a commodity has value only because there is labor living on it
nothing can have value, without being an object of utility
if the thing is useless, so is the labor in it THE ORIENTAL MAN IN SEARCH OF HUMAN VALUES Hinduism: Brahman is Selfhood a way of life more than a way of thought
man has dual nature; spiritual and immortal essence, and the other his empirical life and character
Karma, samsara, moksha
Caste System Buddhism: Man's Liberation from Suffering began as a revolt of Siddharta Gautama, the Buddha against Orthodox Hinduism
Four noble truths about the Nature of Suffering; 1. life itself is the root of all sufferings 2. that sufferings are due to desires 3. that desires can be eliminated by negating life; that this can be achieved by accumulating karma- deeds that will eventually bring the emancipation of the individual.
The Eightfold Path: 1. Right Knowledge 2. Right Aspiration 3. Right Speech 4. Right Behavior 5. Right Livelihood 6. Right Effort 7. Right Mindfulness and; 8. Right Absorption Confucianism: Man as Master of Nature Confucius taught the following philosophical principles: 1. Jen or human-heartedness
2. Yi or "oughtness" of good actions
3. Li or propriety
4. Doctrine of the Mean or Central Harmony
5. The Five Relationship
6. Wen or the art of peace
7. Ten or power
8. Various Other Human Values Taoism: Nature as the Master of Man it shares with Confucianism the distinctively Chinese vision of man's oneness with nature
Islam: Man's Complete Surrender to God not only a religion but a philosophy of life, a complete way of life
"Muslim" meaning "given to God"
Five Pillars: 1. Confession of Faith 2. Prayer 3. Charity 4. Ramadan 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca