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2. Gender: males > females
3. Culture: northern Europeans > southern Europeans
4. Societal Adaption: social rule of conduct for Asians; such as avoiding eye-contact Retail and Service Environments - Experience begins long before a customer steps inside the building; by having a desire or “need”
- Need for product (objective) ~> time, effort, and expense (process) ~> feelings evoked: before, during, and after (outcome) When is the Experience Enjoyable? For Recreational Shoppers:
2. perceived freedom
3. involvement For Utilitarian Shoppers:
2. perceived freedom Important Points: to gain customers' satisfaction and increase sales The shop's appearance, products, and other services should be as high as the customer's expectations if not higher ! Nearly sold-out products such as in a clothing shop increase sales; by giving the customer an impression of selling a good- quality item that is high in demand Comfortable seating areas especially in a furniture store (using the same kind of seating furniture they sell) increase sales; by giving the customer the opportunity to try the product Crowding Problems caused:
1. narrow aisles
2. unpleasant odors
4. unwanted change in temperature
5. density Solutions
1. restaurant reservations
2. multiple cashiers in large department stores
3. using ceiling- suspended signs Counters are usually provided with a glass top and with display shelves below. Part or whole of the front, back and sides may also be made of glass. When counters are to hold cash registers caused by the mechanical movement of the till. Display Clothes rails are designed and sized according to the type of garment. they are meant to hold they may be freestanding hung from the ceiling or incorporated in a wall cabinet. 1-Straight rail:
This can be single or double if it is double the second rail is attached adjacent to the first rail or above it standard lengths are 900,1200,to 1500mm. 2-Cross bar rail:
this can be a double or a triple unit it consists of T-bar hanging rails fixed to a common base frame(the bars are adjustable in height and direction)the overall base width varies from 600to1200mm and the height from 1100 to 1500mm. 5-circular rail:
This type is very popular because it fits into most awkward plan shapes and allows customers to gather and inspect the merchandise from all angles however one disadvantage of this system is "bunching" caused by restricted space on the inner side of the circular rail. Clothes rails hung from the ceiling are of the straight type they leave the floor unobstructed but may require bracing to prevent the rail bar from swinging. The salon therefore carries a secondary function – it also serves as an exhibition space for young designer’s garments hand picked by a famous Polish designer. wall units have a permanent condition which rather restricts the alterations which can be made to floor layout to allow for some flexibility they can be dimensioned on a module designed to make it possible to move them with the minimum of disturbance. Display shelving comes in 2 styles:isle gondola (double sided), or wall gondola (single sided). dump baskets are used for binning the bulk display of cheap small merchandise considered to be impulse goods or throw away lines which are usually circular but sometimes square in plan circular types include carousel units which revolve round a central. The Single Path -The single path ensures that all visitors have similar experiences.-This path used to introduce to the visitors the idea of the shop , this process of introduction called “scaffolding”.-Single path display often involve visitor management problems and “dwell time” needs to be strictly.Ex:Before they see any of the exhibits visitor might be ushered into a cinema to watch a film which would immerse them in series of inspirational stories intended to communicate the brand values of a particular company. If the film is effective , visitors are usually more receptive to the company’s marketing and products. “Star” Exhibits -The shop can be arranged predominantly around outstanding objects.-This type of display is important when other classification systems might entail a dull visitor experience.-The displays were redesigned to maximize visitor enjoyment and highlight the most dramatic and exciting examples in the collection.-There are tow dual role:*they enliven the areas around them*also tend to draw visitors through a gallery .Ex:The victoria & albert museum Areas of Affinity - Placing exhibits as near as possible to similar artifacts.
- This approach has its own logical problems and demands that visitor make subtle judgments about how close one object should be to another .
- Visitor can make immediate visual connections between exhibits, compare them directly and follow a thread of exploration from one exhibits to another.
- Individual areas of affinity we can divided with walls and gaps .It make visitor cross- comparisons between discrete but related displays.
Rene’d Harnoncourt at the museum of modern art in New York, to show the distinctiveness of artworks from different Polynesian island. The Fan Pattern - This type is usually favored for business-to-business trade fair.
- This allows visitors to take in immediately all that is one display at a show and works very well for anyone who has little time and wants to see a particular stand without delay .
- It is important to orientate trade fair stands towards their busiest approaches. Layout and Circulation Pattern It retailer to maximize the sales for each square foot of the allocated selling space within the store.
Each floor plan and store layout will depend on:- -type of products sold,
- the building location
-how much the business can afford to put into the overall store design 1- customer should be induced to visit all parts of the shops by the way in which demand goods or bargains are set out.
2- areas in the rear may require special light with higher levels of illumination or special display to attract customer.
3- “dead ends’ or ‘cul-de-saecs’ caused by fixture in plan should generally be avoided
4- commodities should be classified in such a way that it is clear where they will be put.
5-similar goods or related goods should be replace together or adjacent to each other. 1.Grids Seeing the task( visibility) The state of being perceivable by the eye, is often thought to depend principally upon the amount of light on the object or task to be seen, and more light on the object or task will make it more visible. Contrast sensitivity Acuity The ability to detect the presence of luminous or brightness differences The ability to distinguish fine details Veiling reflection and contrast The angular floor plan is best used for high-end specialty stores.The curves and angles of fixtures and walls makes for a more expensive store design. However, the soft angles create better traffic flow throughout the retail store. The geometric floor plan is a suitable store design for clothing and apparel shops.It uses racks and fixtures to create an interesting and out-of-the-ordinary type of store design without a high cost. If the available light strikes the task surface at an inappropriate angle, and the light bounces off the task into eye, the contrast between the task and surround may be reduced and, hence, visibility will be reduced. This condition is called a “veiling reflection” the task is “veiled “ from view because of the way the light strikes it and is reflected to the eye.
This angle from which the light strikes the task and is reflected to the eye is often called the The mixed floor plan incorporates the straight, diagonal and angular floor plans to create the most functional store design.The layout moves traffic towards the walls and back of the store. 2-Free Flow Layout "mirror angle " -Fixtures and Merchandise are grouped in Free- flowing patterns on the sales floor-Works best in small stores (under 5,000 square feet) in which customers wish to browse Advantage :
Allowance for browsing and wandering freely Disadvantage :
possible confusion and waste of floor space Difficulty of cleaning 3-Loop layout Quantity of illumination -The major customer aisle begins at the entrance, loops through the store and returns customer to the front of the store.-Used in departmental stores 4-Spine Layout -The major customer aisle runs from the front to the back of the store, with merchandise departments branching off to the back side walls.- Heavily used by medium-sized specialty stores ranging from 2,000 – 10,000 square feet . The designer, through client/occupant/designer interaction, establish the tasks of prime importance, with an appropriate hierarchy of other tasks. Similarly, the time duration of each task, worker ages, expected task performance, and task characteristics must be determined. Circulation areas around individual display that are not main circulation routes to be 1.2m-1.5m
Steps less than 80mm are dangerous so single or double steps should be avoided.Ramps height (1:12) the length9-6m.Short ramps height (1:10) length 2.5mMinimum dimension for wheel chair can negotiate 90 turn is 91cm. If all or many the tasks requires similar lighting quantities, then the designer might design the room lighting system to meet one representative task, and this would also meet the majority of the other task requirement. If all or many the tasks requires similar lighting quantities, then the designer might design the room lighting system to meet one representative task, and this would also meet the majority of the other task requirement. Daylight •Simplicity
•Well organized setting (to facilitate quick action) For good lighting Direct sunshine excessive brightness differences poor visibility & discomfort result - Provides opportunity for changing patterns of light & shadows for interior surfaces & objects
- Give a sense of well-bing, of time & orientation It must be used with discretion or it is likely to cause poor seeing conditions or add excessive heat to a space. Note Avoid direct skylight and sunshine on critical task Reflection of sun light from surfaces & objects (Light that is spread over large areas & reflected is partially absorbed It is spread & softened reduced in intensity) Increasing visibility & seeing comfort Bounce daylight off surrounding surfaces Use direct skylight and sunshine sparingly in non critical task areas Bring the daylight in high The higher the opining is, the deeper daylight It is more likely to be softened & spread by surfaces & objects The harshness of direct skylight and direct sun can be filtered for additional softness and more uniform distribution.
Even electric luminaires are not left exposed the light intensity is spread & softened Ex Trees, shrubs, vines, curtains, reflective “shelves” and louvers Bring the daylight in high Integrate daylight with other environment concerns View Natural movement of air Acoustics Electric lighting Daylight controls Customer needs 1- Site Parking Neighborhood Walkways 2- Products cheap/expensive, display method, services 3- Shop interior Lighting Sign Theme Color scheme Satisfaction Shoppers Recreational Utilitarian Satisfaction perceived Seeks Accomplishment Seeks Entertainment Involvement Women Men Ex Affected by: Other people Objects Structures Mitigated by :
Personal control perception Stimulation and arousal Factors: Temperature Odor Noise Density Crowding Weather Season Holidays 4- Individuals Ages Personalities Gender Experiences Status 5- Personal space Design focuses on convenience Design focuses on enticement and attraction A variety of daylight controlling devices can be used which may be helpful in getting the daylight to where it id needed and for eliminating excessively bright areas from view. Static controllers Dynamic controllers Reflecting blinds, louvers & shelves Skylight & roof reflectors The principles when planning the layout : 6-products with incompatible association or a deleterious effect on each other must be separated .ex: meat and toiletries.
7-small and relativity expensive items should be near cash counter where they can under constant supervision.
8-flexibility in layout and services is essential to allow for alteration and change in seasonal variation.
9-shapes that look well on the drawing board do not necessarily translate and changes in sales floor. Sign & graphics provide information and can add personality and beauty to a store’s image. Dividing path: The diagonal floor plan is a good store layout for self-service types of retail stores. It offers excellent visibility for cashiers and customers. C-Angular Floor Plan B-Diagonal Floor Plan D- Geometric Floor Plan A-Straight Floor Plan The straight floor plan is an excellent store layout for most any type of retail store. It makes use of the walls and fixtures to create small spaces within the retail store Zoning and Sub Zoning Types A-Freestanding units: B-Hanging
units: C-Wall units: 4-Projecting rail:
hanging rails are cantilevered from a central pole: They may be standard rails or “waterfall’ rails . 3-Double Z rail:
this can be single or double tiered the unit is a cross between the straight rail and the circular rail it allows customers to inspect a range of garments from one position (as in circular rails)but without the problem of "bunching" ; it consists of four short bars arranged at right angles to each other cantilevered from a central pole. the hanging bar length may be 300 to 450mm and the overall base width from 600to900mm Type of reflectors /shades venetian blinds take advantage of reflected ground light by bouncing it deep into the interior of the space properly adjusted venetian blinds reflect daylight to the ceiling and do not prevent a view to the exterior Drapes & fine screens Mirrors and polished reflectors Filtering daylight with vegetarian Glazing materials Tinted The tinted transparent glasses & plastics are properly the most common types of selectively-transmitting materials in use now. They allow a view out restrict the amount of daylight and sun that comes in. Translucent Glazing materials such as opal and surface treated glasses, diffusing and patterned plastic and glasses, and diffusing glass block, are light-transmitting but translucent they do not permit a view through. some glazing materials produce a define, controlled change in the direction of the transmitted light by refraction. Directional transmitting Counter D-Display Shelving : E-Dump
Baskets : Selling method Path Layout .A small refreshment area may be located in the waiting room or refreshments may be served by the receptionist.
.Specify appropriate display fixtures for product display and sale near the reception counter or in the waiting area.
.Pendent lighting fixtures can be excellent design features in this area. Shampoo Area: .The number of wash basins should be at least one third of the number of styling stations.
.At least 24 inches should be allowed between wash basins.
.Specify a shelf or shelves for products, equipments, and towels behind or within easy reach of each wash basin. .Some salons provide movable carts rather than millwork cabinets for stylists' stations with drawers or shelves to store products and equipments
.Provide a safe place for customers to store their handbag at the styling station
.Multiple electrical outlets are needed for trimmers and blow dryers.
.Excellent lighting for stylists is required. Hair Drying : - Specify comfortable chairs and small tables for magazine and refreshments.
- Provide space behind chairs for floor-standing hair dryers and color lamps.
- Provide task lights so that customers can read magazines. Manicure and Pedicure Stations : - Ideally, locate them away from the styling and waiting areas due to fumes from products.
- Provide a small counter for display of products for sale.
- Tables and chairs are specially designed units that provide ergonomic comfort for the technician and customer.
- A small sink in close proximity is desirable. - A counter at stand-up height is needed to hold products and equipment.
- Generally, the customer will be seated in a bar-height stool/chair with a back.
- Lower chairs may be used for salons that cater to older customers.
- Decorator bulbs placed on each side of the mirror at face level are commonly used.
- Full-spectrum lighting should be used to imitate daylight, nightlight, and office lighting.
- A nearby sink is desirable to clean and disinfect equipment. Makeup Stations : Styling Stations: Reception/Waiting area: .The reception counter at the entry is at stand-up height for customers and at sit-down height for employees. Counter space is needed for a telephone, appointment books, and a cash register or computer.
.Provide space for customers' coats or access to a dressing room. Finally Designing the interiors of retail stores is exciting and challenging. It requires knowledge of space planning, extensive understanding of merchandising of goods, sensitivity to the use of color, lighting design, materials and a lot of creativity. In this specialty, the client has very specific needs in terms of space planning, fixture specification, and materials that will help set the stage to sell the products and services. And yet, the client who hires the interior designer is not the only client who must be satisfied. The store's customers and what they expect from the store must also be considered in planning and design. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6-Spiral rail This is circular in plan but on a spiraling from which resemble form which resembles a "waterfall" arm with notches to hold a pre-set number of hangers diameters 700to1100mm heights 1750 to 2000mm number of garments held 50 t0 65. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Advantages:
Easy to locate merchandise, cost efficient,
easy accessible for customers.
limited browsing and limited creativity in decor. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E-Mixed Floor Plan - - - - It defined shops layout and how customer will served:
from behind a counter with the goods being displayed on the counter.
Goods in shelves behind it and to a small extent on display units on the sale floor.
Ex: cameras and stereo equipment
3- goods are order
On completion of sale the assistant warp the goods on the counter and takes the cash to the cashier point.
Ex: small special food shop
Assisted service :
Customers may select and inspect the goods openly displayed on wall and island units. Sales staff are at hand for providing general information . this type of service suits shop dealing with low to middle cost comparison goods where customers must personally inspect the goods at leisure to check quality, variety and value. A general requirement is that the cash counter should take a prominent central position which commands good supervision of all areas.
Here customer pick the goods from open shelves and take them for packing and payment to a checking out point without any contact with shop staff. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - the value dynamics model by Khalifa 2004 Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field that has produced a wide body of knowledge about the interaction between the physical environments and human behavior. However, most of this research has been conducted in hospitals, offices and schools, whereas only a trace of the research has focused on studying the effect of store environments on consumer behavior. (Baker et al. 1992) Environmental psychology Ambient lighting Temperature : ambient temperature in saudi arabia 26.5 degree centigrade.
Music: a slow tempo makes people more satisfied and relaxed.(ibid. 2003)
Scent: The first reports in the popular press came from the United States in 1990, when it was reported that two identical pairs of Nike athletic shoes were evaluated more positively in a scented than in an unscented environment. Moreover, people estimated that the pair in the scented store cost more. Ambient factors To identify the factors that generate approach behaviors in customers, it is necessary to classify the various elements of a store environment. There is no single, widely used method for dividing the different elements of a retail store and not many researchers have even attempted to create one. Baker (1986, 79-84), divided the store into three critical dimensions: ambient, social and design factors. Classification of the elements of store environment .Thus, it’s important to understand what factors in the environment generate pleasure and arousal in the targeted consumers, since stores that elicit feelings of pleasure are likely to be the ones where people want to spend their time and money. the S-O-R –model represents the relationship between the stimuli in the environment, people’s emotional states and the approach or avoidance behavior that results from the interaction of stimuli and emotion. S-O-R model (adapted from Donovan & Rossiter 1982) the dominant approach to study consumer behavior in a store environment has been the Stimulus-Organism-Response –model developed by Mehrabian and Russell
This model describes how people react to stimuli in the environment by using three steps: Stimulus, Organism and Response (S-O-R) Stimulus-Organism-Response –model the value dynamics model breaks down the gross customer value in the value exchange model to two fundamental dimensions: customer as a consumer and customer as a person. The first dimension focuses on the basic product or service delivery features, which are expected from every product. These are, for example, the cleanliness of a store and suitable layout. The existence of such basic feature makes the customer neutral, but their absence, however, leads to dissatisfaction.
Satisfaction can only be achieved by offering something innovative and unexpected. The second dimension focuses on the core personal needs that every customer as a person has. By satisfying these deeper needs, companies can make people delighted, but if they fail in their attempts people might get outraged. (Khalifa 2004) the value dynamics model by Khalifa 2004 4. Point-of-purchase and decoration variables (e.g. artwork, point-of-purchase displays, and price displays) 4. Point-of-purchase and decoration variables (e.g. artwork, point-of-purchase displays, and price displays) 3. Layout and design variables (e.g. space design and allocation, placement merchandise, placement of cash registers, waiting queues, and furniture) 3. Layout and design variables (e.g. space design and allocation, placement merchandise, placement of cash registers, waiting queues, and furniture) 2. General interior variables (e.g. color schemes, lighting, music, scents, and temperature) In retail, or any other design setting, Gestalt laws essentially mean that people respond to their environments holistically. In other words, although people might notice individual stimuli, such as background music, it is the total configuration of all the different stimuli that determines people’s response to the environment. Gestalt psychology In retail design Satisfaction For retailers, the most important part in the model is to understand if and how different stimuli affect to consumers’ responses.
Most retailers naturally want to increase the number of approach behaviors in their customers. 4. Point-of-purchase and decoration variables (e.g. artwork, point-of-purchase displays, and price displays) 3. Layout and design variables (e.g. space design and allocation, placement merchandise, placement of cash registers, waiting queues, and furniture) 3. Layout and design variables (e.g. space design and allocation, placement merchandise, placement of cash registers, waiting queues, and furniture) 2. General interior variables (e.g. color schemes, lighting, music, scents, and temperature) 1. External variables (e.g. exterior display windows, color of building, and location) 1. External variables (e.g. exterior display windows, color of building, and location) Gestalt psychology is that when there is some ambiguity in the visual array, the viewer will perceive the simplest shape consistent with the information available Gestaltism also states that the whole is different than the sum of different elements. (Bell et al. 2001, 62-63) Gestalt psychology Environmental psychology
describe how environments affect human behavior.
We will take different classification methods to categorize the different factors in a store environment: Elements of Store Environment a fifth element, human variables (e.g. employee characteristics, uniforms and privacy), is missing from the Berman an Evans classification !
(Ullakonoja, 2011) 4. Point-of-purchase and decoration variables (e.g. artwork, point-of-purchase displays, and price displays) 3. Layout and design variables (e.g. space design and allocation, placement merchandise, placement of cash registers, waiting queues, and furniture) 2. General interior variables (e.g. color schemes, lighting, music, scents, and temperature) 1. External variables (e.g. exterior display windows, color of building, and location) Recent classification for atmospheric variables in stores by Berman and Evans 1994 include physical and visible elements of the store environment, such as architecture, layout and materials used in the decoration. include the people that are present in the environment. That is, staff and other customers. include background music, noise, scent, lighting and room temperature. Factors of store environment (adapted from Baker 1986, 79-84)