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Guiding Principles in Determining and Formulating Learning Objectives and Content
Transcript of Guiding Principles in Determining and Formulating Learning Objectives and Content
Topic Curriculum Engineering
Rodiel C Ferrer
Prof. Roland Nño Agoncillo
Determining Course Objectives & Determining & Organizing Content Outline of the Presentation
1. Guiding principles in Determining and Formulating Learning Objectives
2. Higher – order thinking
3. Taxonomy of Objectives
4. Guiding principles in the selection and Organization of Content Guiding principles in Determining and Formulating Learning Objectives: 1. Begin with the end in mind. 2. Share lesson objective with students. 3. Lesson objectives must be in the two or three domains
c. Affective 4. Work on significant and relevant lesson objectives. 5. Lesson objective must be aligned with the aims of education as embodied in the Philippine Constitution and other laws and on the vision-mission statements of the educational institutional of which you are a part. 6. Aim at the development of critical and creative thinking. What is Higher –order thinking? Higher-order thinking by students involves the transformation of information and ideas. This transformation occurs when students combine facts and ideas and synthesize, generalize, explain, hypothesize or arrive at some conclusions or interpretations. Manipulating information and ideas through these processes allow students to solve problems, gain understanding and discover new meaning. (Department of Education, Queensland, 2002, p.1) TAXONOMY OF OBJECTIVES – HIGHER-ORDER THINKING Benjamin Bloom (1956) led his group in coming up with the list of instructional objectives in the cognitive domain. KEY WORDS FOR THE TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: 1. REMEMBERING List
Sort PRODUCTS INCLUDE: Quiz
Vocabulary 2. UNDERSTANDING Restate
Give examples of Paraphrase
Give main idea
Define PRODUCTS INCLUDE: Recitation
Show and tell Example
Outline 3. APPLYING Translate
Draw PRODUCTS INCLUDE: Photograph
Journal 4. ANALYZING Inquire
Discriminate PRODUCTS INCLUDE: Graph
Report 5. EVALUATING David Krathwohl (1964) and associates likewise came up with the instructional objectives related to interests, attitudes and feelings – the affective domain. Judge
Reject PRODUCTS INCLUDE: Debate
Investigation 6. CREATING Compose
Concoct PRODUCTS INCLUDE : Film
New game Song
Painting Lower and Higher Order Questions Lower level questions are those at the remembering, understanding and lower level application levels of taxonomy. Source: www.oir.edu/Did/docs/QUESTION/quest1.htm • Higher level questions are those requiring complex application, analysis, evaluation or creation skills.
• Questions at higher levels of the taxonomy are usually most appropriate for:
o Encouraging students to think more deeply and critically
o Problem solving
o Encouraging discussions
o Stimulating students to seek information on their own. Source: www.oir.edu/Did/docs/QUESTION/quest1.htm 1. Questions for remembering • What happened after..?
• How many…?
• What is..?
• Who was it that…?
• Can you name…?
• Find the definition of…
• Describe what happened after…?
• Who spoke to..?
• Which is true or false..? Source: Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p.12 2. Questions for Understanding • Can you explain why..?
• Can you write in your own words?
• How would you explain..?
• Can you write a brief outline..?
• What do you think could have happened next…?
• Who do you think could have happened next..?
• Who do you think…?
• What was the main idea..?
• Can you clarify…?
• Can you illustrate…?
• Does everyone act in the way that… does? Source: Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p.13 3. Questions for Applying • Do you know of another instance where..?
• Can you group by characteristics such as..?
• Which factors would you change if…?
• What questions would you ask of…?
• From the information given, can you develop a set of instructions about..? Source: Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p.14 4. Question for Analyzing • Which events could not have happened?
• If.. happened, what might the ending have been?
• How is…similar to?
• What do you see as other possible outcomes?
• Why did..changes occur?
• Can you explain what must have happened when..?
• What are some or the problems of..?
• Can you distinguish between…?
• What were some of the motives behind..?
• What was the turning point..?
• What was the problem with..? Source: Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p.14 5. Questions for Evaluating • Is there a better solution to..?
• Judge the value of .. What do you think about?
• Can you defend your position about..?
• Do you think..is a good or bad thing?
• How would you have handled..?
• What changes to … would you recommend?
• Do you believe..? How would you feel if..?
• How effective are..?
• What are the consequences..?
• What influence will…have on our lives?
• Why is.. of value?
• What are the alternatives?
• Who will gain and who will loose? Source: Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p.14 6. Questions for Creating • Can you design a.. to..?
• Can you see a possible solution to..?
• If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with..?
• Why don’t you devise your own way to..?
• What happened if..?
• How many ways can you..?
• Can you create new and unusual uses for..?
• Can you develop a proposal which would..? Guiding principles in the selection and Organization of Content 1. One guiding principles related to subject matter content is to observe the following qualities in the selection and organization of content:
1.7. Feasibility 2. At the base of the structure of cognitive subject matter content is facts. We cannot do away with facts but be sure to go beyond facts by constructing an increasingly richer and more sophisticated knowledge base and by working knowledge base and by working out a process of conceptual understanding. Distinguish
Separate 3. Subject matter content is an integration of cognitive, skills and affective elements. Classroom Exercise : Identify in which Bloom’s Taxonomy the following key words are related:
(Creating, Evaluating, Applying, Understanding & Remembering)
1. Write - ?
2. Recite - ?
3. Review -?
4. Observe -?
5. Paint - ?
6. Calculate - ?
7. Decide - ?
8. Criticize - ?
9. Devise - ?
10. Concoct -? Classroom Exercise : Identify in which Bloom’s Taxonomy the following key words are related:
(Creating, Evaluating, Applying, Understanding & Remembering)
1. Write -REMEMBERING
2. Recite -REMEMBERING
3. Review -UNDERSTANDING
4. Observe -UNDERSTANDING
5. Paint - APPLYING
6. Calculate - ANALYZING
7. Decide - EVALUATING
8. Criticize - EVALUATING
9. Devise - CREATING
10. Concoct - CREATING 7. For accountability of learning, lesson objectives must be SMART.
S – pecific
M - easurable
A - ttainanble
R - esult-oriented
T - ime bound and Terminal