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CONJUNCTIONS

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Szareina Lorin

on 6 October 2014

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Transcript of CONJUNCTIONS

CONJUNCTIONS
What is a Conjunction?
It's like a glue.
Joins words, phrases, clauses and sentences.
What is a Conjunction?
Join two or more words.


Example: I went to the store to buy eggs, milk, and bread.

What is a Conjunction?
Joins two prepositional phrases.


Ex. I went skiing down the hill and past the trees.

What is a Conjunction?
connects two clauses or sentences
Ex. I played cards for awhile, but then I played chess.

Types of Conjunctions
Coordinating Conjunctions
Correlative Conjunctions
Subordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating Conjunctions
connect words, phrases, and clauses, which are sentences.
There are seven coordinating conjunctions: Use
FANBOYS
to remember.
F
or
A
nd
N
or
B
ut
O
r
Y
et
S
o
Coordinating Conjuctions affect the meaning of your sentence.
"
And
” connects things that are alike or joined together.


Ex. I want popcorn
and

pizza
.

But
” is used to connect things that are different.

Ex. I want popcorn
but
not pizza.


Or
” is used to offer a choice.

Ex. Do I want popcorn
or
pizza?



Nor
” is used to offer a negative choice.

Ex. I do not want popcorn
nor
pizza.


Yet
” is used to show a change. When it is used to combine two sentences, you must put a comma before it.


Ex. I want popcorn,
yet
I also want pizza.

So
” is used to show a relationship between things. When it is used to combine two sentences, you must put a comma before it.
Ex. I want pizza,
so
I made some.
Ex. I ordered a pizza,
for
I was hungry.

For
” is also used to show a relationship between things. When it is used to combine two sentences, you must put a comma before it.

Correlative Conjunctions
Connect words, phrases, and clauses, which are sentences.
Connect things of equal value.
Are not single words. They work in pairs.
There are five pairs of correlative conjunctions:

both...and
either...or
neither...nor
not only...but also
whether…or
Examples of Correlative Conjunctions
I saw
both
the Statue of Liberty
and
the Empire State Building.
I don’t want
neither
pickles
nor
tomato on my hamburger.
Examples of Correlative Conjunctions
Examples of Correlative Conjunctions
I don’t know
whether
to play volleyball
or
to play basketball this year.
Examples of Correlative Conjunctions
Not only

do I play the flute,

but

I

also

play the clarinet.

Examples of Correlative Conjunctions
You
either

go home

or

shut up
.
Subordinating Conjunctions
used to introduce a subordinate or dependent clause.
Because
he loved acting, he refused to give up his dream of being in the movies.
joins two complete ideas by making one of the ideas subordinate to or dependent upon the other.
They bought more exotic fish
after
they had experimented with goldfish.
Adverbial Conjunctions
Adverbial Conjunctions
Act as transitions between complete ideas by indicating comparisons, contracts, results and other relationships.
The doctor did help my back problem;
however
, I still experience occasional pain.
The earthquake damaged the wall structure.
Moreover
, it broke some water pipe.
My hay fever grew worse. I,
nevertheless
, refused to remain inside.
INTERJECTIONS
Entered English language probably in 13th or 14th century.
Etymology : Latin interjicere
Jacere, to throw or cast between
Inter, between
Words or phrases which are used to express emotions or to catch the readers attention.
Not used in formal or business writing.
Do not relate grammatically to the other parts of the sentence.
Do not help readers understand the relationship between words and phrases in the sentence.
Positions of Interjections in the Sentence
Beginning of the Sentence
Examples:

Oh no,
I can't believe that he did that to you.
Shocks,
I didn't know that there is a grammar test today!
Middle or at the end of the Sentence
Examples:
Stand-Alone Sentence
Examples:
Oh my God!

No way!
In my opinion,
woah
, that was the smartest thing you've ever said!
So he did that to you,
huh
?
The difference among ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS and CONJUNCTIONS.
Adverb
Single word and occasionally a pair of words that is not connected to anything.
Example:

Tommy is doing his homework
now
.
Preposition
ALWAYS connected to a noun phrase or an object pronoun.
Example:
Tommy is writing his essay
on
his computer.
Conjunctions
Followed by entire clauses or subordinate idea. There must be a subject AND a verb.
Example:
Tommy is using his sister's computer
because
his computer has a virus.
To summarize:
Adverb
Preposition
+ noun phrase or an object pronoun
Conjunction
+ clause (with subject AND verb)
Examples:
I have never eaten this
before
.
I had never eaten that
before
my trip to Japan.
I had never eaten that
before
I went to Japan.
Identifying Conjunctions in Sentences.
Write the conjunction in each sentence and identify it as coordinating, correlative or subordinating.

Example: I could not decide whether your answer was right or wrong.
Whether or ( correlative)

1. The physics instructor explained the theory, but I did not understand it.
2. Roger is significantly taller than Doug is.
3. You should eat salads since they are good for your digestion.
4. I checked several banquet facilities before I finally chose this one.
5. Unless you reform, you will be dismissed.
6. I burned my tongue, for the soup was still hot to eat.
7. Whenever the shepherd gave the order, the dog began to round up strays.
8. Not only can you do some packing, but you can also carry out some boxes.
9. Persimmons and pumpkins can be used to make excellent spice cookies.
10. Now that the harvest is behind them, the farmers can relax.

Distinguished Between Subordinating Conjunctions, Prepositions, and Adverbs.
Identify each underlined word as subordinating conjunction, preposition, or adverb.

Example: Before we planted seeds, we fertilized the garden.
Subordinating conjunction

1. Shirley rented a typewriter until the end of the month.
2. Where do you keep the silverware?
3. They bought more exotic fish after they had experimented with goldfish.
4. My relatives had toured Europe four times before.
5. You should see Maine, where the thick forests come right to the ocean’s edge.
6. When did the school board vote on that issue?
7. I haven’t skied since last February.
8. Louis stayed on board till the final warning bell forced him to leave.
9. We refinanced the house because we needed money.
10. We had dinner before the performance.

Kinds of Interjections
There are two kinds of Interjections:
Mild Interjection
Emphatic Interjection
Mild Interjection:
an interjection that expresses a mild emotion.
Examples:

Oh
, you look awful.

Hey
, it’s me.

Ah
, you’re here.

Emphatic Interjection
an interjection that expresses a strong emotion or sudden feeling.
Ouch!
It hurts.

Help!
I’m drowning.
Yey!
I passed the board exam.
Examples:

Examples:

Hurray!
We won the game.

Wow!
That’s great.

Use or Functions of Interjections
Express Joy

Examples:

Ah
, I have lost my sister’s bag.

Alas!
She has failed in the exam.

Express Sorrow

What?!
Is it true that you are leaving this school?


Oh really?
You killed a snake? I can’t believe this.

Express Surprise
Examples:

Bravo!
The trophy is yours.


Well done!
You performed your best.

Express Approval
Examples:

Eww!
What is that smell?

Express Disgust
Examples:

Yuck!
That’s so gross.

Listen!
All of you come here.


Look!
You have to do this job.

Express Attention
Examples:
- conveys strong emotions such as anger, excitement or surprise.

Know How to Punctuate Interjections
*Exclamation point [ ! ]
Examples:

Hurry!
There’s a danger.

Ouch!
It hurts.
Huh?
You want me to help my enemy?

*Question Mark [ ? ]
- illustrate confusion, uncertainty or disbelief.
Examples:

Oh, really?
You killed a rattlesnake with a salad fork?
- indicate weaker emotions like indifference, contempt or maybe sadness.

*Comma [ , ] or Period [ . ]

Oh
, you look awful.


Hey
, it’s me.

Examples:
1. Hi, I'm glad that you could make it to my party.
2. Wow! You look great tonight.
3. That was the best performance that I have ever seen, bravo!
4. I can’t believe you broke my favorite toy, bah.
5. Hmm, I wonder where I put my keys and wallet?
6. Miners used to shout, eureka, when they struck gold.
7. “Shoo!” shouted the woman when she saw the cat licking milk from her cereal bowl.
8. I guess that’s the end of the movie, darn.
9. Stop! You should always wear a helmet when riding a bike.
10. Yippee, I made this picture all by myself.

Directions for the interjection worksheet: In the following sentences, identify the interjection and underline it.
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