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Analysing media products - The Avengers

Cambridge Technicals, Media Level 3 - Unit 1
by

Hidir Ergonul

on 2 May 2013

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Transcript of Analysing media products - The Avengers

Media Institutions Marvel Studios are a part of Walt Disney (also the distributor for Avengers), they own most of Marvels films, however they are usually partnered with other companies, for example Iron Man 2 is owned by Marvel Studios and Paramount pictures. They own most of the Marvel Animations and films such as Ironman, Incredible Hulk, Thor, Captain America. Marvel Studios have full owner ship of Avengers Assemble, and Walt Disney are the distributors to most of their films. Marvel studios also do animations for the younger audience, however they are not as popular as the movies they produce. The ownership for Avengers Assemble are Marvel studios. OWNERSHIP Marvel produce many things from Comics, toys, packed lunch boxes to Games.
They are known for their comics, most as all of their films are based around them.
They have a wide variety of toys for children, they produce action figures and games for their younger audience. Even though most of the Marvel films are 12+ they still stay active for the younger audience below 12. Marvel have been making comics since 1939, formally known as Timely comics, and since then they have still been making comic books. PRODUCTS Marvel Studios are a vertical studio. They own everything they use for films, studio etc.. However, with their films, they do not distribute them, other companies buy the right to do it for them. For example Ironman is distributed by Paramount Pictures and the Avengers is distributed by Walt disney. OPERATING MODEL Currently Marvel are producing, Comics, movies, cartoons, toys, games. Marvel are known for creating the best super hero movies, from Ironman to the Avengers. Marvel make most of their money from the movies they make, and the second is the comics they produce, Marvel comics is were it all started from, and this evolved into making films based on the comics which made the company grow bigger into the state they are in now, being the best Super Hero movie and comic developers MARKET POSITION Marvels biggest competitor is DC Comics (owned by Warner Bros). They both create comics and make films based on them. The biggest film Marvel have ever made is the Avengers, which made $1,511,757,910 and DC’s biggest film is The Dark Knight Rises which made $1,081,008,499. These two companies have been competing since Marvel started making comics. They have made comics together in the past showing Marvel characters vs DC characters. The main reason why these 2 are competitors is because they both make films and comics based around super heroes, Marvel have Spiderman, X-men, Hulk, F4 and DC’s biggest namers are, Batman, Superman, Justice League of America. In movies alone Marvel is worth $922,007,588 more than DC, meaning that Marvel are better however the Dark Knight Rises did top a 8.7 on IMDB and the Avengers only managed an 8.4 COMPETITORS MOVIE DATABASE FILM REVIEW FINANCIAL INTENTIONS
PURPOSE OF THE FILM DEMOGRAPHICS Did the film meet your expectations? I carried out a questionnaire to find out the opinions of the audience towards the film, here are the results i got The main reason why people wanted to go and watch the avengers is because how good Marvels previous films were. 2nd most picked is because it had good reviews, this encouraged people to go watch it, hearing good things about the film from others. 13% of people i asked said a friend told them about the film, not all people know who Marvel is, so when a friend tells you lets go watch the Avengers, and that the previos films were good, you automatically want to go and watch it. Why did you choose to watch the film? 15 people i asked all said they enjoyed the film. The reasons they put down were mainly, humour and comedy put together. The 1 person that didn't enjoy the film wasn't a big fan of Marvel, he said the film met he's expectations but he didn't enjoy it, he said “ the first hour of the film was boring”. Did you enjoy the film? All 16 people i asked said yes, the majority of the people i asked said they enjoyed Iron Man the most, this is due to the fact that it is the funniest out of all of them, it also has the best story line. Most of the girls i asked said they enjoyed Thor, this is due to girls finding Chris Hemsworth ‘sexy’. Only 1 person said Captain America was the best, the number is low because the film involved no comedy at all as Marvels other films were dominated by Action and Comedy. Did you like Marvels previous films? Cinema was the most chosen. I believe most people watched the film in cinemas because the film was advertised a lot, meaning people wanted to go see it as soon as it come out. The second reason why people watched it in cinema as soon as it come out was becuase of how good the previous Marvel films were. The people who chose other watched it on private DVD, is is because they either didn't have the time or the money when the film come out. Where did you watch the film? Hidir Ergonul Out of the 16 people i asked they all said the film met there expectations. I got comments like “ it was amazing”, “it was good”. This is due to how good the solo Marvel films were, and when they all join up to make one film everyone was expecting it to be amazing. It is rated 8.4 on IMDB, and was Number 1 for resent releases for a while. It's the fastest movie ever to hit the $100 million, $150 million, and $200 million mark, this tells us everyone had high expectations so they went to watch it immediately. It made $207 million in the first week. Did the film meet your expectations? Hidir Ergonul The prominent character in the Avengers is Tony Stark / Ironman, this is due to the fact he is the funniest character not only in the Avengers but in all of Marvel films he has played in. Most people i asked told me that The Avengers wont be as good without Tony Stark as he brings comedy to the film. The second favourite is Black Widow, this is because the majority of the male audience think she is ‘sexy’ and enjoyable to watch, she also is the only main female character in the film. Who was your favourite character Hidir Ergonul As you can see the prominent ethnic origin is White British, this is mainly due to the target audience for the Avengers being White. This is because of the stereotype ‘white people are geeks’ as most geeks/nerds are white, and the majority of Marvel comic fans are ‘geeks’. This is the main reason the target audience is mainly White British.
As you can see mixed is second, this is mainly down to London being such a mixed city as i did do my questioner in London. What is your ethnic origin? Hidir Ergonul As you can see the majority of the audience that have seen the film are between the ages of 12-16, the reason for the results being like this is because Marvel target there films towards kids and teenagers. Avengers is PG 13 meaning there are going to have more teenagers watching the film rather then adults at the cinema. How Old are you? Hidir Ergonul The majority of people who have watched to film are males, this is because Marvel cartoons and action figures have always been targeted at Males, only in the past recent years they have started getting the female audience involved. Most males growing up have always been into action figures, and when a character they use to play with is in a film they automatically want to go and see it. The results still tell us how The Avengers/Marvel films are male dominant. What is your gender? The majority of the people i asked rated it 9/10, this is quite good considering the overall rating of the film being 8.4 on IMDB. This tells us that people enjoyed the film considering no one rated it below 7. The main reason for a couple of people to rate is 7 is because some people found the first hour of the film boring. Rate the film out of 10
(10 being the best) Focus Group Avengers The film was Distributed by Walt Disney and Motion pictures, however in the UK the main distributer was Walt Disney.
Disney actually brought the rights to distribute the Avengers and Iron Man 3. The Avengers was due to be distributed by Paramount Pictures, however Disney bought the rights for $115 mil.
The Avengers haven't been released on TV yet however they recently released the DVD and Blu Ray version.

The avengers was released on the 26th of April in cinemas and was released on DVD/Blu Ray on the 28th August, so 4 months later the Cinema release date, the DVD/Blu Ray was released.

The Avengers was released on the 26th of April in the UK and 27th in the USA. The film was a big hit in cinemas, however, many people downloaded it online (illegally and legally). On the day of the blu-ray release the film hit 40,000 seeders on a known torrent site called KAT.ph, this is a lot for a film, meaning a lot of people downloaded it as soon as the blu-ray was released.
The Avengers has not been released to rent/buy to watch online yet, there is no reasoning for this, however the DVD and Blu-ray versions were released on the 28th of August. Marvel - Avengers Assemble DISTRIBUTION The film was first promoted at the 2010 San Diego Comic Con, where a teaser trailer was shown. The first full length trailer was released in October. In february Disney paid $4mil to have a 30second commercial spot for the full trailer during the Super Bowl.

Promotional Partners
Marvel partnered with the fragrance company JADS to make Avengers character based fragrances

To advertise the Avengers, Walt Disney paid a lot of money for big billboard spots, the billboards were usually 3D is well. They promoted the film through websites is well, such as IMDB, they had banners on these type of film fan sites. The advantages to these type of advertisement is, anyone who is a fan of films or Marvel get to see it ‘ Direct Marketing ‘ . Its also hard to miss, for example a big billboard or a advert during the super bowl. Disadvantages to these promotion techniques is that they are very expensive, for example the super bowl advert cost them $4,000,000 for a 30 second TV advert. ADVERTISING THE AVENGERS When distributing the film, disney didn't use any radio adverts, they haven't released the reason why.
The Avengers used the cast to advertise the film, instead of using celebrities that aren't related to the film they used the likes of Robert Downey JR and Scarlett Johanson and the rest of the cast. They attended many comic expos talking about the film and giving interviews, this made the crowd happy and even more excited for the film. Interviews and appearing on TV shows helped raise awareness for the film a lot, it was a important that Disney done this as most people were more excited. They attended many awards and talked about the film there is well. ADVERTISING THE AVENGERS As you can see most people answered useful, this is due to her doing a big part on getting Dr.Baner to join the Avengers, she was also useful by getting information out of Loki. The 18% who said useless said this because she felt less dominate around the Super Heroes How are women represented in the Avengers? Most people said that the film was made to feel intense, and this is true as the film is a action film, although it is funny it does not count as a comedy. The people who said it was to make you laugh also said, it was action packed however they found it more funny. What was the intensions of the director of the directer for the film? As you can see it was close, however most people said that having a woman hero didn't change their views on heroes. People who agreed with NO, left comments such as “There has been some in the past”. 90% of the people who said yes left comments like “Because they can be good looking”, “Because she it hot”, this means that Black Widow being hot has changed the views on heroes for some people. Did having a woman Hero change your views on super heroes The majority of people who took my survey said they watched the film to be entertained, and this is what Marvel aim to do. 20% watched the film to escape from the real world, this is due to Avengers including other characters from outer space, meaning people watch it to feel like they come from somewhere else. 10% watched the film to be around friends, as some people enjoy movies when they watch it with friends. What was you reason for watching? Understanding Audiences People who said in the cinema said it was more exciting as they watched it in a better quality, better experience. People who watched it with friends said they found it more funny because you seem to laugh more when your with others rather then watching it on your own or at home. People who watched it with friends left comments like “ it was better because we spoke about the movie after”, this is the main reason people watch it with friends, the social experience after the film, it makes it feel like the film was better. The audience who watched it in 3D said the cinema experience was much better. People who watched it at home or on their own said, said they didn't find it as funny as people made it out to be, this is due to no social experience being involved. How did this impact your views on the film? (related to Q7) The majority of people who watched the film watched it in the cinema, this is because people like watching films with friends because you don't get the social experience when you watch it on your own. When you watch it on your own or at home you dont laugh as much as you would with friends at the cinema. 71% of the people who watched it at the cinema, watched it in 3D. How did you watch the film? The majority of my answers were yes, even some of the girls i asked said yes, this is because Scarlett has a attractive face and body, and most peoples eyes are drawn to her body when she entered the scene because she was wearing a tight costume which revealed her figure. The 27% who said No are most likely to be women. Do you feel that when Black Widow was in the scene your eyes were drawn to her feminine body? Most people i asked said they agreed that watching super heroes work as a team changed their views on them, this is mainly due to Avengers being the only Hero film that include a super team, most hero films are solo so people assume thats the best way. Did the film reinforce your views on Heroes working as a team
The British Board of Film Classification is a company which classifies films and DVD’s. Video classification is when a age is put onto a film, this decided which ages are allowed to watch the film. They look for drugs, horror, behaviour, language, nudity, sex, sexual violence, theme and violence when making decisions Legal Issues In the Avengers assemble no cuts had to be made to the film. The trailers for the film are all in PG however the film its self is in 12. The reason the trailers are in PG is because kids below 12 don’t have control over TV or adverts and they see them all the time, however they have control over Cinema if they want to see the film or not.Avengers Assemble contains a lot of intense sequences of sci-fi violence and action throughout, it also contains a drug related reference in the scene were Tony Stark is poking Baner with a sharp tool and Baner stays calm, Tony Stark asks what’s his technique to control he’s anger: “Jazz Music? Bongo Drums? Huge bag of weed?”
No scenes were removed due to issues in the movie. The difference between 12 and 12a is that 12 is just for videos, for example DVD’s and Blu-Rays and 12a is for films at cinema only, so there is not a difference. Ethical Issues There is also sexism towards women in the avengers, Black Widow is shown as weak compared to the other characters and it seems, as she is useless, she’s only in the film for her ‘sexiness’ . However, this was not an issue as it was mild sexism and no one complained about it. Justification and Certification I think that the rating given to the film is correct. 12 is right because the violence in the film was mild, there was a lot of fighting but hardly any blood etc.. Even though there is a mild drug reference, it was intended to make the audience laugh and I dont think anybody got offended by it at all. I believe the 'sexism' towards Black Widow was not intended, it was just a bigger reason for young male teenagers to watch the film. Considering no body complained about it, it was not an issue at all. This is the details of The Avengers from the movie database IMDB, the cast, ratings etc.. The purpose for Marvel making this Film is for obvious reasons, to make money. However Marvel are known to turn their best selling and fan favorite comics into films, so this was a big factor for them producing this film as it was a fan favorite, 'super heroes joining to make a team, to fight evil'.
The movie made a total of $1,199.99 Focus Group Analysis My first question was “what was your opinion on the plot of the film?”, The first answer I got from Cary was that the plot was really good, he said especially the story line of the tesseract, the fact that who ever held the tesseract had power over everyone else. The answer I got was that the plot was exciting, it wanted to make you watch more and find out what was going to happen. The next question I asked the group was, “How did you feel about these characters being in the film? Did they do a good job?” and I listed the main cast. The first response I got was “Only reason I watched the Avengers, is because of Robert Downey jr” and this relates to my questionnaire, most of the answers were that Robert Downey JR was their favorite character, my group said this is because Ironman is the coolest and funniest. I then asked what do you feel about Scarlett Johansson, it was surprising that none of the boys commented on her beauty and feminine body as this was the main answer I got in my questionnaire, that everyone was attracted to her body, however they did say her acting wasn’t that good, but her looks made it better. I got a response saying that Jeremy Renner could of done more, he only said a few words in the film, and that he was quite. The next question I asked was, “What’s your opinions one these camera shots and camera angles?” My group responded with the following “It made the scene look better and much cooler” and this is true, the camera shots and angles used in The Avengers were amazing, it represented the team better and bigger then they really look. When the camera pans around the team was one of my pictures and Reece said it shows the team becoming a force and Cary said how the order they were standing in made the shot more cool. Whats your opinions on these camera shots and camera angles? Do they make the scenes more exciting? Whats your opinions on the plot (story line) of the film?
Think about - Loki stealing the tesseract
The team hating each other
A non human army trying to invade Earth


Robert Downey JR (Iron Man)
Chris Hemsworth (Thor)
Chris Evans (Cptn America)
Mark Ruffalo (Hulk)
Scarlett Johansson (BW)
Jeremy Renner(Hawkeye) Financial Intentions The film was made for obvious reasons, and that was to make money and profit. However, Marvel are known to create films after their biggest comics. The Avengers was a fan favorite comic, so to give back to the fans they decided to make The Avengers. The reason behind The Avengers Comics being so successful is because of the aspect behind, super heroes unite to make a team to fight evil. This was one of the main reason the Avengers was succesfull, the fact that they used character from their previous films to make a team. The film was successful and made just over $1,036,000,000 Focus Group Questions In the beginning of the scene we see Captain America giving out instructions, we hear a old motorbike noise, the scene cuts to Dr.Baner coming towards the group on a old motorbike. The cut is effective because it switches to him on the motorbike after we hear the noise, the editing tells the audience that Dr.Baner is useless, it cuts back to the group to show their reactions of him turning up this is called a reaction shot. As he’s having a conversation with Black Widow the camera switches to the face of who ever is speaking, this indicates they are talking about something important.It cuts to a face shot of Tony Stark in the Iron man suit, and then it match cuts of him flying around the building, then another reaction shot happens to show the groups reaction to the flying monster.It cuts to Ironman telling Captain America to tell Baner to suit up, it switches back to Cptn America telling banner its time to get angry, it match cuts to Baner saying I’m always angry. Hulk Smash Scene Film Review Video Although there is a lot going on in the background the images are not very dense because the focus limits you on the main characters. The textures are very detailed such as the smoke and the flames, this tells the user something bad had happened, Subsidiary Contrasts The main subsidiary contrast in this shot is Black Widow because the other characters are out of focus. She blends in with the background as she is wearing dark colours, however her hair makes her stand out as it is a bright colour. The other subsidiary contrast is Thor as he is the only character at the back were we can see he's face. Colours There a 4 dominant colours in this scene, Red from Thor and Ironman, Green from the hulk, Blue from Captain America and Black form Black Widow and Hawk-eye. The background is made up of dark colours, this means they want the audience to focus on the 6 characters as they are the main characters in the film. The 4 colours contrast from everything else in the frame. The blue from captain america symbolises loyalty, that he is loyal to he's team. Lighting The lighting used is high contrast, however the sky is really bright. The scene is not brightly lit however the circle the characters have formed is brighter then the things in the image, this shows us that they are a team and they have united together. There is alot of bright colours in this picture, so having high contrast makes them stand out more then the greys and browns of the buildings behind them. Framing The character look like they have no room to move in, this is a smart technique by the camera crew because it shows us that the characters are cornered in by the enemy, and there is no hope of surviving and winning the war. Camera shots and Angle This shot is a medium shot, this is because the two main character are shot from the waist and above.
The camera angle used shows us all of the main characters in the film, and in action films when the main characters come together it is usually because something bad is going to happen. The camera angle is a medium shot angle, this is to show us all of the characters in the shot. The Dominant The dominant character in this shot is Captain America (CA), the main focus is on Black Widow and CA, CA is more dominant as he is the biggest character out of the two, hes stance shows us he is confident and ready to fight. He is wearing a blue uniform, the colour of he's costume makes him stand out in the dark coloured background, also the star on he's chest makes us look at hime straight away when you look at the screen shot.
Hes stance is showing us he is in charge, he has he's back straight and shoulders up yet again this connotes confidence and strength.
In the picture he's not biggest as hulk is behind him, but he is still shown as the dominant character. Density What is BBFC? How did you feel about these characters being in the film? Did they do a good job? Merchandise Before the film was released, Marvel released toys for all the characters, most of the Merchandise for the film is targeted for children below 12, and this is quite odd considering the target audience is 12+ for the film. They also made a partnership with cinemas such as Odeon, they had a deal on, that if you buy a large popcorn you get a free Avenger toy. They released gadgets for the older audience iswell, they had Avenger USB's for sale at one point. Pre- Production This is the stage that is used for the planning of the film, for example scripts and storyboards. Marvel has the right for the Comics so they didnt have to worry about gaining the rights for the Avengers comics. Stan Lee is the person who come up with the whole Story, he is the man behind the majority of Marvels comics. The film was made after the comic Stan Lee had written however many changes were made, the rest of the film was written by Zack Pen and Josh Whedon. The film was directed by Josh Whedon, he wrote some of the scenes him self iswell. The producer for the film is Kevin Fiege. The main cameraman for the Avengers was Seamus McGarvey. The storyboarding was done by Federico D’Alessandro at Marvel Studios OFCOM
OFCOM is the office of communications. It is a government approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom. OFCOM regulates what material go on TV and when it goes on. They protect the public from what might be considered harmful or offensive material

The Avengers film has not been on TV yet. If it was to be broadcasted on TV it will be shown most likely before the watershed, late afternoon for familys to watch together, there is no harmful or offensive material in the Avengers for it to be broadcasted after the watershed Copyright The Avengers was one of the most illegally downloaded movies of 2012 topping 8.1 million Torrent downloads. When you buy a copy of the avengers you do not own the rights for the movie, you can not copy it or make your own version of it. Marvel allowed videos of the Avengers to be uploaded onto youtube however the revenue the video earned went straight to Marvel, not to the original uploader of the video meaning they were not that strict on 3rd party use of the Avengers material as they earned more money from it. It is illegal to copy the movie onto a disc or the internet, even though they did not take big action against illegal pirating they still lost a big sum of money because of it. Codes and Convetions The genre of the film is a hybrid between Action and comedy and in the sequence I reviewed included both of these elements. The comedy part of Dr.Baner coming on a old motorbike while there is fighting going on and the action part when he turns into Hulk and smashes one of the alien ships. Throughout the films you see elements of the film being a hybrid. It is action packed but also funny, this is one of the main reason the Avengers was so succesfull. The camerawork used also showed how action packed the film was in this sequence, the way the camera tracks Dr.Baner as he transformed into the Hulk makes you feel as if you are in the war with the Avengers. This is the stage were the filming is done for the film. For most of the action/ fast paced scenes, 12 DSLR Cameras were used, 5 Canon 5D Mark II's and 2 Canon 7D's . These cameras were used to film the majority of the cinematography in the film, not the whole film its self. The main camera for the film was the ARRI ALEXA. Alot of the fighting scenes were done in a studio, this made it easier for the editors as the whole studio was a big green screen. For the street scenes the streets had to be cut off so no one can enter the shoot location. The city they used to film was New York Production Post Production is the stage were all the editing is done, this comes after the filming stage.The editing was done by Jeffrey Ford and Lisa Lassek. Nearly on every single set a green screen was used, the majority of the scenes for the film used a green screen, like they had green screens on walls and behind cars, this makes it easier for the editors to add explosions, this is because alot of explosions took place in the film. All the explosions and muzzle flares and smoke effects took place in the editing, The HULK was also added in after the film was filmed (CGI).
SFX was used alot in the Avengers, it is #1 for the most sfx used super hero movie. Christophey Boyes was one of the head leaders of SFX for the Avengers, most of the gun sounds was recorded just for the film, they were not taken of somewere else. Post Production Narrative Structure Theory 1 - Todorov The film starts out without any distruptions, just Nick Fury and scientists in a lab trying to figure out how to use the power of the Tesseract for unlimited power, however the distruption starts 15 minutes into the film when Loki comes out of the Tesseract portal and this is when Nick Fury reconigses the distruption as It is slightly odd for a man to come out of such power. The attempt to fix the distruption is by calling in the team, The Avengers however they come up across more distruptions while trying to form the team as they can not work and get along with each other. While trying to fix the current problem more problems open up for the team, now they need to fight Loki and a army led by him while trying to become friends. To settle everything the team must fight off the Army and stop Loki however they get outnumbered. Another distruption happens when the militiary try and solve the issue by launching a nuke into the city that they are fighting in which opens more problems for the team. To solve the issue Tony Stark decides to fly the rocket/nuke into the alien portal as Hulk and Thor try to destroy the power source for the alien portal. No one dies from the team as Tony Stark manages to finish the job and survive. Theory 2 - The Eight character types The villian in the Avengers is Loki, who is one of the heros brother. The heroes are the Avengers, however in the film they do not seek anything as they want to get away from the 'hero' life, not to be introduced back into it. The Donors and the helpers for the heroes are S.H.I.E.L.D, they are the group who brought the team together and the main helpers are Black Widow and Hawkeye. The reward for taking down the villian is peace to Earth as he wanted to destroy it, another reward is the return of the Tesseract. After capturing Loki (Villian) they decide to back down as a team and part ways. The princess of the film is Pepper Pots (Tony/Ironmans) girlfriend, as she is everything to Tony and when hes about to die shes the first thing he thinks about and trys to call her.The Avengers does not have a 'false' Hero. Theory 3
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