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Education in the American Colonies 1620 - 1750
Transcript of Education in the American Colonies 1620 - 1750
Hot Topics & Trends
Teachers & Schools
Education in the American colonies
1620 - 1750
Melissa O'Toole - Elizabeth Schafer - Corey Ondera
Teachers & Schools
(NY, NJ, PA, DE)
-Diverse group of people
-Established their own schools based on religion they practiced
- Dependent upon which colony a family lived in
- Dependent upon whether a family was wealthy or poor
New England Colonies
(MA, NH, CT)
-Puritans taught their students to read and write, so they
could learn the scriptures
-Discipline of students: belief that children were sinful,
curbed natural instincts of children so they would behave
like adults more quickly
-Wealthy plantation owners believed school was to promote religion and to prepare children to attend college or university in Europe
-Children from poor families didn’t receive formal schooling
-Instead, these children had an apprenticeship that was meant to teach a skill so they could survive in the colonies
(VA, MD, GA, NC, SC)
What were the colonists attempting to achieve in the education of their children? What were the standards?
Who were the major figures in colonial American education?
What were some of the defining characteristics of educators during the period? What were their schools like?
What kinds of subject matter were considered important at the time? Why?
What were some of the more popular emerging trends in education before the United States of America even existed?
-Late 1600’s, New York
-Spoke out about the lack of education for the children of slaves.
-Appointed by Church of England to teach African Americans and Native Americans how to read, so they could read the bible and be saved.
-Teacher at the Friends’ English Public school in Philadelphia; now called the William Penn Charter School
-Tutored slave and free African American students, as well as rich and poor white students, in his home at night
-Believed that black students were as competent in learning as white students
-Established a girls’ school in 1755 after seeing their inadequate education
-Opened a school for African American students (now called the Benezet House Association)
-Ahead of his time in education proposals
-Established a plan for an English-language grammar school in Philadelphia in 1749-fell through
-Wanted schools with laboratories, books, maps, and globes for a real hands on approach to education
-Teachers that emphasized both practical and ethical elements of the skills and subjects they taught
-Wanted to provide knowledge that prepared people to make contributions to occupations and professions in the developing nation
-Organized the first lending library
-Rooted from European settlers’ philosophies and traditions of education.
-Focused on scripture, civic duty, morality
-Education for the less fortunate only went through elementary grades or was learned from family, apprenticeships, available books and newspapers
-Had status and were more educated than majority of the population but were ranked second to clergy
-High moral character
-Scrutinized by the community
-Additional duties: clean school, substitute for minister and ring church bell
-Mostly boys attended school. Dame Schools were only form of education for most girls, established by women and run out of their homes.
-School attendance was dependant upon the crop season and amount of work to do at home
-New England - Puritan traditions, reading was taught for reading scripture, schools and states were interrelated
-1635 Boston Latin School first public school (college prep)
-1636 Harvard was first college founded in North America
-Middle colonies –more education based,preserved the language and beliefs of the various settlers’ origins making them more tolerant of difference than the other colonies
-Southern colonies – socioeconomic society, homeschooled, tutors or attended private school.
-1727 Ursuline Academy in New Orleans, earliest operating school for girls
-Quakers educated Native Americans
-1698 Puritans establish first public school in Philadelphia
-Only 10% of children attended school before the
-Massachusetts Act of1642, declaring children must learn to read and write or parents would be fined
-The Massachusetts Act of 1647 required every town with more than 50 families to establish an elementary school
-Founded in 1727 by Benjamin Franklin, who had no wealth or status
-Comprised of Philadelphia's most prominent merchants
-Unifying force was an inquiring spirit and a devotion to self improvement
-Continued for over Forty years
-Members assumed positions of leadership in business and society
-Sharing of personal libraries led to creation of first lending library in 1731
-Key to the creation of the American Philosophical Society in 1743
-They formed an "academy of learning" in 1751 that would later become the University of Pennsylvania
(1635) - The first Latin Grammar School (Boston Latin School) is established. Designed for sons of higher social classes as preparation for leadership roles.
(1635) - The first "free school" in Virginia opens. However, education in the Southern colonies is more typically provided at home by parents or tutors.
(1690) - John Locke publishes his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, which conveys his belief that the human mind is a tabula rasa, or blank slate, at birth
(1690) - The first New England Primer is printed in Boston. It becomes the most widely-used schoolbook in New England.
(1698) - The first publicly supported library in the U.S. is established in Charles Town, South Carolina. Two years later, the General Assembly of South Carolina passes the first public library law.
(1710) - Christopher Dock, one of Pennsylvania's most famous educators, arrives from Germany and publishes first book about teaching in the future United States
(1734) – Christian von Wolff describes the human mind as consisting of powers or faculties. Called Faculty Psychology, this doctrine holds that the mind can best be developed through "mental discipline" or tedious drill and repetition of basic skills. This viewpoint greatly influences American education throughout the 19th Century and beyond.
Christian von Wolff
The Early Years (1686 -)
-First institution of higher learning in the American colonies
-Offered classic academic courses based on the English University model
-Consistent with the Puritan beliefs of the first colonists
Later Years (1708 - )
-John Leverett becomes first president who is not also a clergyman
-Turning point in the college's move away from Puritanism and toward
-Cirriculum was expanded, particularly in the sciences
-Most schools required parents to participate in providing for the physical needs of the teacher by whatever means available, be that produce, furs, firewood, or chores. In some areas of strong religious persuasion, education was not seen as beneficial
- The Quakers did not encourage absolute illiteracy, but they thought knowledge of the ‘three R's’ was enough; they distinctly disapproved of any extended scholarship, as it fostered undue pride and provoked idleness
-Religion provided a stimulus and prelude for scientific thought. Of those Americans who were admitted into the scientific "Royal Society of London," the vast majority were New England Puritans
-Literacy was a vehicle by which to understand religious scriptures
-Past a very basic level, education for girls was largely unheard of, as it existed to produce future leaders of society
-Among the tribes that had developed written languages, the Cherokee had developed a system of formal education to pass knowledge from one generation to the next. They were systematically pushed out
Colonial Beliefs about Education
Thank you for learning about the beginnings of our educational system. We're looking forward to learning about other time periods from all of you as well!