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American Imperialism Powerpoint (new)
Transcript of American Imperialism Powerpoint (new)
Chapter 17 Imperialism? Definition: is the economic and political domination of a strong nation over other weaker nations.
Why did some Americans feel the U.S. should have been a world power?
1. No countries had the resources like tin and oil the economy needed
2. Europeans began looking overseas for places to invest their captial.
3. The new oversea markets were being made to keep America strong. What was the "taken" area allowed from the imperialist nation? How is Social Darwinism linked
to colonization/imperialism? The supporters of Social Darwinism argued that nations competed with each other politically, economically, and militarily, and the only the strongest would survive. U.S. Ends Japan's Isolationism -Japan's rulers believed that excessive contact with the West would destroy their culture and only allowed the Chinese and Dutch to trade with their nation.
-Commodore Perry was ordered by President Franklin Pierce to take a naval expedition to Japan to negotiate a trade treaty.
-The Japanese had never seen steamships before and were impressed by the American technology; therefore, the Japanese signed a treaty opening the ports of Simoda and Hakodadi to American trade.
-By the 1890's, the Japanese had built a powerful modern navy, and they set out to build their own empire in Asia.
-If Perry had been unsuccessful, I do not think America would be trading as easily as we do now with Japan. Annexing Hawaii American settlers found that sugarcane grew well in Hawaii's climate and soil. By the mid-1800s, many plantations had been established in the islands.
-A severe recession in 1872 struck Hawaii. The United States worried the Hawaiians would turn to the British or French for help; therefore, the U.S. ratified a trade treaty in 1875 that exempted Hawaiian sugar from tariffs.
-Several years later, when the treaty came up for renewal, the Senate insisted that the Hawaiians grant the United States exclusive rights to a naval base at Pearl Harbor. The Spanish-American War -The Maine was a ship that had aboard officers and sailors and exploded. The size of the explosion indicated that the ship's ammunition supploies blew up.
-When the explosion happened, many Americans blamed it on Spain. Cuba was a Spanish colony at the time, but it was in the midst of a revolution. The Cuba people, were fighting for independence from Spain. Within a matter of weeks, Spain and the United States were at war.
-The outcome dramatically altered the position of the United States on the world stage. -The imperial power allowed the local rulers to stay in control and protected them against rebellions and invasion. What were they expected to do in return? -The local rulers usually had to accept advice from the Europeans on how to govern their countries. How is "manifest destiny" linked to colonization/ imperialism? -Americans believed it was destiny of the United States to expand overseas and spread its civilization to other people. This is a picture of Commodore Perry's
steamships arriving in Japan. -Queen Liliuokalani ascended the Hawaiian throne. The Queen disliked the influence that American settlers had gained in Hawaii. She unsuccessfully attempted to impose a new constitution that would have reasserted her authority as ruler of the Hawaiian people.-Supported by the marines from the Boston, a group of planters forced the queen to give up power and set up a provisional government. Later hey requested that the United States annex Hawaii. -President Cleveland strongly opposed imperialism. He withdrew the annexation treaty from the Senate and tried to restore Liliuokalani to power. Hawaii's new leaders refused to restore her, and they decided to wait until a new president took office who favored annexation. Five years later, the United States annexed Hawaii. Queen Liliiuokalani Cuban Rebellion -Until Spain abolished slavery in 1886, about one-third of the Cuban population was enslaved and forced to work for wealthy landowners on the plantations.
-In 1886 Cuban rebels declared independence and launched a guerrilla war against Spanish authorities. Lacking internal support, the rebellion collapsed in 1878.
-In the early 1980s, the United States and Cuba had become closely linked economically. Cuba exported much of its sugar to the United States, and Amerians had invested about $50 million in Cuba's mines, railroads, and sugar plantations.
-The U.S. imposed new tariffs, in an to protect its troubled economy from foreign competition.effort This wrecked the sale of Cuban sugar in the U.S. and devasted the island's economy.
-With Cuba in an economic crisis, Marti's followers launched a new rebellion. Marti died in battle but the revolutionaries seized control of eastern Cuba, declared independence, and formally established the Republic of Cuba in September 1895. Spanish-American War American Support of Cuban -Citizens compared the Cubans' struggle to the American Revolution so they supported Cuba.
-Yellow Journalism was when writers often exaggerated or even made up stories to attract readers.
-Yellow Journalism was used to sell more papers.
-Cuban rebels staged hit-and-run raids, burned plantations and sugar mills, tore up railroad tracks, and attacked supply depots.
-The rebels knew that many American businesses had invested in Cuba's railroads and plantations.
-To prevent Cuban villagers from helping the rebels, Weyler herded hundreds of thousands of rural men, women, and children into "reconcentration camps," where tens of thousands died of starvation and disease.
-News reports of this brutal treatment of civilians enraged Americans and led to renewed calls for American intervention in the war. Map of Cuba Spanish- American Conflicts -In 1897 Republican William McKinley became president did not want to intervene in the war, believing it would cost too many lives and hurt the economy. He made it clear that if the war did not end soon, the United States might have to intervene.
-Spain offered the Cubans autonomy -the right to their own government- but only if Cuba remained part of the Spanish empire. Spain's concessions to the rebels enraged many Spanish loyalists in Cuba.
-McKinley sent the battleship Maine to Havana in case the Americans had to be evacuated because he worried American citizens in Cuba might be attacked.
-The New York Journal printed a private letter written by Enrique Dupuy de Lome. A cuban agent had intercepted the letter and delivered it to the paper.
-The Maine exploded in the Havana harbor. The press promptly blamed Spain. Call for War -"Remember the Maine!" as a rallying cry for war. By early April, President McKinley was under tremendous pressure to go to war. American mobs were demonstrating in the streets against Spain-against McKinley for refusing to go to war.
-Teddy Roosevelt was raged at McKinley had "no more backbone than a chocolate eclair." Many Democrats were also demanding war, and Republicans feared that if McKinley did not go to war, the Democrats would win the presidency in 1900.
-On April 19, Congress declared Cuba independent, demanded that Spain withdraw from the island, and authorized the president to use armed force if necessary.
-In response, on April 24, Spain declared war on the United States. For the first time in 50 years, the United States was at war with another nation. The Philippines The Maine ship. -The Philippines was a Spanish colony, and American naval planners were determined to prevent the fleet there from sailing east to attack the United States.
-Commodore George Dewey led his squadron into Manila Bay in the Philippines. As dawn broke, Dewey's fleet opened fire and rapidly destroyed the severely outgunned Spanish warships.
-Dewey's quick victory took McKinley and his advisers by surprise. The army was not yet ready to send troops to help Dewey capture the Philippines. Hastily, the army assembled 20,000 troops to sail form San Francisco to the Philippines. On the way to the Philippines, the American troops also seized the island of Guam, another Spanish possession in the Pacific. Conflict in Cuba U.S. Troops about
to attack Manila--> Rough Riders in Battle -A Spanish fleet occupied Santiago Harbor, where it was well protected by powerful shore-based guns.
-Among the American troops advancing towards Santiago "Yellow Journalism" -American troops attacked the village of El Caney northeast of Santiago. Another force attacked the San Juan Heights. While one group of soldiers attacked San Juan Hill, the Rough Riders attacked Kettle Hill.
-The Rough Riders werer accompanied by the all-black 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments.
-The Spanish commander immediately ordered the Spanish fleet in the harbor to flee.
-Spanish resistance in Cuba ended with the surrender of Santiago two weeks later. Soon after, American troops occupied the nearby Spanish colony of Puerto Rico. Spain and the U.S. agreed to cease fire. 1. Joseph Wheeler joined the Georgia militia as a lieutenant. His bravery, daring, and effectiveness led to a rapid rise through the military ranks.
2. Wheeler settled in Lawrence County in Alabama to become a lawyer and a planter. He actively participated in politics.
3. Wheeler easily won the November election and went on to serve in the U.S. Congress until 1898. During his terms in office, Wheeler became a champion of reconciliation between the North and South. Alabama native "Fightin' Joe Wheeler" Lieutenant Joseph Wheeler America's Empire Cuba was given its freedom as promised.
Spain had agreed that the United States would annex Guam and Puerto Rico. The big question was what to do with the Philippines. The United States faced a difficult choice--remain true to its republican ideals or become an imperial power. Cuba and Puerto Rico
Map --> -Many supporters of annexing the Philippines emphasized the economic and military benefits of taking the islands. They would provide the United States with a naval base in Asia, a stopover on the way to China, and a large market for American goods.
-Other Supporters believed America had a duty to teach "less civilized" peoples how to live properly.
-Not all Americans supported annextion. Carnegie argued that the cost of an empire far outweighed the economic benefits it provided.
-President McKinely decided to annex the islands.
-In 1898 the United States and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris. The treaty said Cuba became an independent country, and the United States acquired Puerto Rico and Guam and agreed to pay Spain $20 million for the Philippines.
-William Howard Taft tried to win over the Filipino people by reforming education, transportation, and health care. New railroads, bridges, and telegraph lines strengthened the economy.
-In 1946, the United States granted independence to the Philippines. Annextion of Philippines In 1900 Congress passed the Foraker Act, making Puerto Rico an unincorporated territory. This meant that Puerto Rico were not U.S. citizens and had no constitutional rights.
-Congress gradually allowed the inhabitants of Puerto Rico a certain degree of self-government. In 1917 the United States made Puerto Ricans citizens of the United States.
-In 1947 the island was allowed to elect its own governor. At this time a debate began over whether to grant Puerto Rico statehood, allow it to become an independent country, or continue it as a commonwealth of the United States. Governing Puerto Rico After the war, the United States established a military government in Cuba. President McKinley allowed the Cubans to prepare a new constitution for their country, but he attached conditions. A special amendment that Senator Orville Platt attached to the 1901 army appropriations bill described those conditions.
Although the Cubans rejected the Platt Amendment at first, they quickly realized that unless they accepted it, the United States would maintain its military government of the island.
-The Platt Amendment governed relations between the United States and Cuba until its repeal in 1934. It effectively made Cuba an American protectorate. Cuba and the Platt Amendement Alabama Native Dr. William Gorgas Dr. William Crawford Gorgas, a U.S. Army doctor and chief sanitary officer to the Panama Canal project, quickly realized that death awaited American workers. The United States was about to begin constructing the Panama Canal to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
-Gorgas set out to lessen the threat of the disease by keeping mosquitoes from breeding. He and his crew drained swamps, gullies, and other sources of stagnant water, They also fumigated nearly ever home in the region and destroyed many buckets, pots, that local residents let fill up with rain water.
-In two years, Gorgas and his crew had wiped out yellow fever in the area. Dr. William Crawford Gorgas -McKinley focused more on the country's increased prosperity unlike William Jennings Bryan.
-In 1901 as President McKinley greeted the public during an appearance in Buffalo, New York, a gunman stepped from the crowd. The man was Leon Czologosz fired two shots and hit the president. Mckinley died from the wounds a few days later.
-President Roosevelt, at 42 years old, became the youngest person ever to become president. Roosevelt brought to the presidenct an energy and enthusiasm rarley seen before in the office. He believed that the United States had a duty to shape the "less civilized" corners of the earth. The new president intended to make the country a world power. McKinley's View of Imperialism Assassination of McKinley China's Open Door Policy -Leasing a territory meant that it would still belong to China, even though a foreign government would maintain overall control. Germany and France demanded leaseholds in China, and Britan insisted on several as well. Each "leasehold" became the center of the country's sphere of influence.
-The sphere of influence is an area where a foreign nation controlled economic development such as railroad construction and mining.
-These events in northern China greatly worried the United States. President McKinley and Secretary of State John Hay both supported the Open Door policy.
-Open Door policy is in which all all countries should be allowed to trade with China. China's sphere of influence Boxer Rebellion occurs because of foreigners... -Westerners referred to one such group as the Boxers. In 1900 the group rose up to wipe out "foreign devils" and their Christian converts, whom they believed were corrupting Chinese society.
-Group members besieged foreign embassies in Beijing, killing more than 200 foreigners and taking others prisoner.
-Secretary of State Hay and British leaders convinced the participating powers to back away from a full-scale retaliation against China. He urged them instead to accept compensation from China for any damage that the rebellion caused.
-As a result, the United States retained access to China's lucrative trade in tea, spices, and silk and maintained an increasingly larger market for its own goods. <-- Boxer Rebellion U.S. Relations With Japan At a peace conference in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Roosevelt, convinced the Russians to recognize Japan's territorial gains and persuaded the Japanese to stop fighting and to seek no further territory.
-Relations between the United States and Japan steadily grew worse. As the two nations vied for greater influence in Asia, they held each other in check through a series of agreements.
-They agreed to respect each other's territorial possessions, to uphold the Open Door policy, and to support China's independence. Presence in the Caribbean -Theodore Roosevelt believed in a strong global military presence. He insisted that displaying American power to the world would make nations think twice about fighting, thus promoting global peace.
-He often expressed this belief with a West African saying, "Speak softly and carry a big stick." Roosevelt's "big stick" policy was most evident in the Caribbean.
-The Hay-Pauncefote Treaty gave the United States the exclusive right to build and control any proposed canal through Central America.
-In 1903 Panama was still part of Colombia. Secretary of State Hay offered Colombia $10 million and a yearly rent of $250,000 for the right to construct the canal and to control a narrow strip of land on either side of it. <--Latin American map that shows Panama Roosevelt Corollary The Roosevelt Corollary said the United States would intervene in Latin American affairs when necessary to maintain economic and political stability in the Western Hemisphere.
-The United States first applied the Roosevelt Corollary in the Dominican Republic, which had fallen behind on its debt payments to European nations.
-Latin American nations resented the growing American influence in the region; however, William Howard Taft continued Roosevelt's policies. Taft placed much less emphasis on military force and more on helping Latin American industry.
-The United States would increase its trade, American businessess would increase their profits, and countries in Latin America and Asia would rise out of poverty and social disorder. Taft's policy came to called dollar diplomacy.