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American Literature Timeline

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A Brown

on 17 March 2013

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Transcript of American Literature Timeline

American Literature Timeline By Allyson Brown and Melissa Steller Native American Beginnings around 1620
Created by various tribes like the Navajo, Iroquois, Onondaga, and Modoc.
Stories were origin myths, legends or folk tales explaining customs, events beyond people's control, religious rites, and natural landmarks.
Emphasized oral tradition; orators such as Logan and Red Jacket
Also had lyrics and narratives with poetic language
Themes were life lessons or morals and origins of their own tribes. Characteristics The Earth on the Turtle's Back
by the Onondaga-Northeast Woodlands Tribe When Grizzlies Walked Upright
by the Modoc Tribe The Navajo Origin Legend
by the Navajo Tribe The Iroquois Constitution
by the Iroquois Tribe Puritan 1750 Mayflower Arrival 1622 Characteristics They first landed in Plymouth; separated from the Church of England; strict religion- believed human beings were for the Glory of God, emphasizing Bible as sole expression of God’s will; pre-destination (John Calvin); ethic of hard work and strict discipline; The Great Awakening marked decline in Puritan values and beliefs.
Typically wrote theological studies, hymns, histories, biographies, journals, and diaries.
Wrote for self-examination and spiritual insight.
No fiction or drama; regarded as sinful
Plain writing style; poetry was only used for spiritual enlightenment 1624 The General History of Virginia
by John Smith 1630 Of Plymouth Plantation
by William Bradford 1640 Bay Psalm Book
by Richard Mather 1641 Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
by Jonathan Edwards 1678 To My Dear Loving Husband
by Anne Bradstreet 1684 Huswifery
by Edward Taylor 1690 New England Primer 1693 Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits
by Richard Mather Neoclassicism/Enlightenment 1800 Characteristics The Age of Enlightenment; writers were influenced by European styles; before and after American Revolution
Writing was mainly public writing such as newspapers, almanacs, magazines, speeches, and letters.
Revolved around politics using journalists and printers.
Less around religion and more on science and logic.
Literature started to focus on the relationship of America with Britain and the nature of government
James Otis was a speaker and pamphlet writer for colonial rights who developed the phrase “Taxation without representation is tyranny!”
Franklin used many aphorisms in his almanacs. 1732-1757 Poor Richard's Almanack
by Benjamin Franklin 1765 James Otis: "Taxation without
representation is tyranny!" 1771 The Autobiography
by Benjamin Franklin { 1775 The Speech in the Virginia Convention
by Patrick Henry To His Excellency General Washington
by Phillis Wheatley { 1776 The Declaration of Independence
by Thomas Jefferson Common Sense
by Thomas Paine Romanticism Romanticism Characteristics Focused on imagination, emotion, nature, and individuality.
Shifts from personal and political to entertaining purposes.
Purely American topics were introduced such as frontier life.
Poetry included exact rhyme, when two words have identical sounds in final accented syllables, and slant rhyme, when final sounds are similar but not identical.
A parable is a story designed to convey some religious principle, moral lesson, or general truth. Dark Romanticism Characteristics Tone is usually morbid and dark
Focuses on dark side of human nature and flaws like greed, selfishness, hypocrisy, guilt, and fear.
Themes demonstrate what happens when we allow our selfishness to surface and dictate our actions. Transcendentalism Characteristics Truth lies outside the experiences of the senses
Believed intuition and the individual spirit “transcend” experience and truth can be found through the senses rather than logical reason.
Divinity is found all around in nature and in each person.
Techniques included free verse with irregular meter and line length Transcendentalists included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Bronson Alcott, W.H. Channing, Margaret Fuller, and Elizabeth Peabody. Fireside Poets: wrote practically about death and patriotism. Include the writers Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes 1819 1820 1823 1823-1841 1824 1830 { 1838 1839 1842 1845 1847 1849 1850 1854 1855 1836 1851 Dark Romanticism
(1836-1851) 1855 Transcendentalism
(1840-1855) Rip Van Winkle
by Washington Irving Legend of Sleepy Hollow
by Washington Irving Thenatopsis
by William Cullen Bryant The Leatherstocking Tales
by James Fenimore Cooper The Devil and Tom Walker
by Washington Irving Old Ironsides
by Oliver Wendell Holmes Minister's Black Veil
by Nathaniel Hawthorne Nature
by Ralph Waldo Emerson Psalm of Life
by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow The Fall of the House of Usher
by Edgar Allan Poe The Raven
by Edgar Allan Poe The First Snowfall
by James Russell Lowell Civil Disobedience
by Henry David Thoreau The Scarlet Letter
by Nathaniel Hawthorne Moby-Dick
by Herman Melville Walden
by Henry David Thoreau Leaves of Grass
by Walt Whitman Self-Reliance
by Ralph Waldo Emerson 1865 Civil War Literature 1852 Uncle Tom's Cabin
by Harriet Beecher Stowe 1855 My Bondage My Freedom
by Frederick Douglass { 1861 Letter To His Son
by Robert E. Lee Mary Chestnut's Civil War
by Mary Chestnut An Account of the Battle of Bull Run
by Stonewall Jackson 1863 The Gettysburg Address
by Abraham Lincoln 1865 An Account of an Experience of Discrimination
by Sojourner Truth Characteristics Included speeches, African American spirituals, letters, and personal accounts during the Civil War
Presented various perspectives of the Civil War 1918 Realism Hello Realism Characteristics Stressed the actual instead of the imaginary.
Wrote truthfully and objectively about ordinary characters in ordinary situations.
Rejected heroic, adventurous, unusual, or unfamiliar subjects unlike Romanticism.
Characters are more important than the plot; usually both good and evil, complex.
Traced the effects of heredity and environment on people helpless to change their situations.
Common themes were the Civil War and slavery.
Incorporated psychological debates including nature versus nurture.
No huge climax; classic plot structure.
Frame narrative: story within a story
Local color: everything in the setting points to a specific time and place, i.e. dialects Naturalism Characteristics Addresses physical, psychological, and emotional extremes.
Hereditary defines characters.
Saw people as victims of unchangeable natural laws
Setting is almost a main character
Common themes are survival of the fittest and life is unforgiving
Focuses on animal-like and negative, but common, traits for all humans. Regionalism Characteristics Wrote mainly about specific geographical areas.
Addresses the distinct culture of an area, including speech, customs, and history.
Local-color writing is also emphasized.
Usually included Southern writers of the 1920’s
Often goes beyond cultural stereotypes to write more culturally in depth about regions { 1884 1894 1895 1899 1876 } 1890 1903 1913 The Outcasts of Poker Flat
by Bret Harte The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
by Mark Twain "The Art of Fiction"
by Henry James The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
by Mark Twain "The Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
by Ambrose Bierce The Story of an Hour
by Kate Chopin War is Kind
by Stephen Crane The Awakening
by Kate Chopin Call of the Wild
by Jack London To Build A Fire
by Jack London Oh, Pioneers!
by Willa Cather My Antonia
by Willa Cather Modernism { 1915 The Love Song of Jay Alfred Prufrock
by T.S. Elliot 1916 The Great Figure
by William Carlos Williams 1946 { 1918 { 1920 1921 1922 { { 1923 1925 1926 1928 1929 { 1930 { 1935 1936 { 1937 1939 1940 { 1941 1942 The Red Badge of Courage
by Stephen Crane 1908 Naturalism 1869 1918 Regionalism In a Station of the Metro
by Ezra Pound Imagist Poems
(1909-1940) Harlem Renaissance
(1919-1942) Grass
by Carl Sandburg Were the Cross is Made
by Eugene O'Niell Start of the
Jazz Age The Tropics in New York
by Claude McKay Wind and Silver
by Amy Lowell Winter Dreams
by F. Scott Fitzgerald Heat
by H.D. The Waste Land
by T.S. Elliot Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
by Robert Frost The Red Wheelbarrow
by William Carlos Williams November Cotton Flower
by Jean Toomer The Great Gatsby
by F. Scott Fitzgerald The Negro Speaks of Rivers
by Langston Hughes Acquainted With the Night
by Robert Frost The End of the
Jazz Age The Sound and the Fury
by William Faulkner A Farewell to Arms
by Ernest Hemingway The Jilting of Granny Weatherall
by Katherine Anne Porter Tortilla Flat
by John Steinbeck Any Human to Another
by Countee Cullen Absalom, Absalom!
by William Faulkner Of Mice and Men
by John Steinbeck Their Eyes Were Watching God
by Zora Neale Hurston Grapes of Wrath
by John Steinbeck anyone lived in a pretty how town
by E.E. Cummings A Worn Path
by Eudora Welty The Gift Outright
by Robert Frost Dust Tracks on a Road
by Zora Neale Hurston Modernism Characteristics Emphasizes world experimentation in style and form
Reflects the fragmentation and disillusionment in society and a loss of faith in the American Dream due to World War I and the following Great Depression
Interests in the inner-workings of the human mind led to stream of consciousness writing
Stream of consciousness: attempts to imitate natural flow of characters’ thoughts as they experience them.
Influenced also by the Jazz Age (1920-1929) and the prosperous 1920’s. Imagism Characteristics Rebelled against sentimentality of the 19th Century
Used clear expression, concrete images, and the language of everyday speech
Created new rhythms and gave complete freedom to subject choice
Typical poem expressed the essence of an object, person, or incident without explanations
Strongly influenced by traditional Chinese and Japanese poetry Harlem Renaissance Characteristics A cultural blossoming of African American literature in Harlem in Northern Manhattan in New York.
First time African American authors were taken seriously by the society at large
Artists celebrated their culture and exalted their heritage Post-Modernism 1949 { 1951 1952 1953 1955 1959 { 1960 1961 1964 1966 1971 1982 1985 Present Death of a Salesman
by Arthur Miller The Catcher in the Rye
by J.D. Salinger Collected Poems
by Marianne Moore Invisible Man
by Ralph Ellison The Waking
by Theodore Roethke "The Life You Save May Be Your Own"
by Flannery O'Connor Life Studies
by Robert Lowell West of Your City
by William Stafford Catch-22
by Joseph Heller The Far Field
by Theodore Roethke The Fixer
by Bernard Malamud Rabbit Redux
by John Updike The Color Purple
by Alice Walker The Accidental Tourist
by Anne Tyler Post-Modernism Characteristics Viewed World War II, the Holocaust, and the dropping of the atomic bomb as undercutting assumptions of life’s meaning
Influenced by studies of media and language and the growth of media and technology
Loss of belief in the dividing line between high culture and low culture
Literary techniques and forms include dialogue alone and many works that blend fiction and nonfiction
Writers focus on capturing the characteristics of contemporary life
Works sometimes reflect on their own making as they evolve Mushrooms
by Sylvia Plath Period 3
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