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Nationalism and Imperialism

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Mark Twain Carroll

on 28 April 2016

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Transcript of Nationalism and Imperialism


-nation has 2 definitions

1)a community of people who share a common language, culture, ethnicity, descent, or history...this nation has no actual boundaries

2)people who share a common territory and government regardless of culture or ethnicity
What is a Nation?
-Nationalism- belief system, creed, or political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a nation
Primordialist vs Modernist
-two arguments as to where the concept of nationalism actually comes from

1. Primordialist-nationalism is a reflection of the ancient and evolutionary tendency of humans to organize into distinct groupings based on similarities

2. Modernist-nationalism is a recent idea that requires the structure of modern society in order to exist
Early Nationalism
-people were generally loyal to a city or to a particular leader rather than to their nation
-nationalism really began to take hold in the late 1700's-early 1800's
-events like the American and French Revolutions fueled the idea of people being united
Forms of Nationalism
-there are 5 main forms of nationalism






-these forms of nationalism can co-exist with each other and are seen to varying degrees
Civic Nationalism
-people who believe in civic nationalism are united by a belief to similar political+government system

-loyalty to the nation is not based on any ethnic or cultural similarities

-support values of freedom, tolerance, equality, civil rights, and individual rights

-examples---USA and most modern countries today
-loyalty to the nation is defined by ethnicity

-ethnicity is a category based on common culture and can include common ancestry, physical appearance, food, dress, history, language, religion, symbols, traditions, etc...

Purity Nationalist
-belief that loyalty to the 'nation' can only be felt by a specifically defined group

-certain minorities are not truly being a part of the 'nation'

-this can be seen in every country today by certain people

-not necessarily dangerous, but is a slippery slope
Socialist Nationalism
-nationalist movement dedicated to the idea that they are being persecuted other nations or leaders

-the need to exercise freedom by liberating themselves from the accused persecutors

-usually take form as revolutions or rebellions
Territorial Nationalism
-the idea that all inhabitants of a country owe their allegiance to the country because they live there

-we all live here, we should all be in this together and share our loyalty to the same thing

-"If you live here then like it, if you don't like it then leave" attitude
-idea that expresses extreme support for one's belief in the 'nation'

-the only form of nationalism that is truly dangerous

-all forms of nationalism can become extreme and 'Ultranationalist'

-Ultranationalist countries are often authoritarian, limit immigration, expel/oppress certain groups or people, create fictional enemies, aggressive police forces, limit on trade, govt control over businesses, strong military, and govt controlled propaganda

-ultranationalism often leads to violence within a country or between countries
-the idea that native peoples want to have rule over themselves as opposed to being controlled by a parent country

-often occurs once the native population gains enough education and confidence to stand up to the more powerful colonizer

-allows locals to take positions of power away from the imperial nation
Criticism of Nationalism
-there are many critiques of nationalism

1. It is often unclear what constitutes a "nation"

2. Nationalism divides people because it highlights differences between people

3. Limits individual identity

4. Gives leaders opportunities to manipulate the masses of people
-Imperialism-the creation and/or maintenance of a country's power and influence through military force

-seen often as a negative because of the exploitation of native people in order to enrich a small handful

-2 main types of imperialism


Regressive Imperialism
-pure conquest, exploitation, extermination or reductions of undesired peoples, and settlement of desired peoples into those territories

Progressive Imperialism
-sympathetic view of humanity

-all human ethnic groups belong to a single community based on a shared morality

-promotes the spread of civilization to allegedly "backward" societies to raise living standards and culture in conquered territories

-allows a conquered people to assimilate into the imperial society


Money Maker
-primary goal of all colonies is to...

-imperialism always involves the massive export of goods to foreign countries

-colonies are necessary when a country's market has been full

-consumers cannot buy all the products that are being produced and new markets must be found

-often called the highest form of capitalism

Colonialism vs Imperialism
-imperialism operates from the center, meaning it is a state+govt policy
-imperialism is for ideological as well as financial reasons

-colonialism is used for the development for settlement or commercial intentions
-governments are usually more "hands-off" when it come to controlling colonies
Age of Imperialism
-time period beginning around 1800 was when the industrial revolution was in full swing
-imperialism happened for three reasons

1. Industry needs natural resources

2. Need for new markets

3. Spread of sphere of influence

Carving the World
-Africa, Asia, and the Middle East were primary targets of imperialism
Rise of Nations
-the ideas of nationalism captured Europe after the French Revolution

-people found reasons to rally together to oppose Napoleon

-countries like Germany and Italy were fueled by ethnic nationalism

-Austria-Hungary was influenced by territorial nationalism

-gave rise to many modern, large, and powerful European states
-ethnic nationalism always includes some element of descent from previous generations

-nations are defined by a shared heritage, which usually includes a common language, a common faith, and a common ethnic ancestry

-example---most countries in Europe (Poland is for Polish people, Italy is for Italian people, etc...)
-the need for easier access to raw materials and resources started the Age of Imperialism

-leading imperialist nations at this time were the British, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and USA

-brought powerful nations into competition over the same territory and resources

-competition was fueled further by nationalism...

"My country/people/culture/government is better than your country/people/culture/government"
Italy---Reunited and it Feels so Good
-Italy had not been a unified country since the time of the Roman Empire...in the 500s

-the Italian people broke apart after the fall of Rome

-the Italian peninsula divided into various small republics and kingdoms (Florence, Lombardy, Venice, Genoa, Tuscany, Naples, Sicily, Piedmont, Sardinia, Papal States)

-the Enlightenment, French Revolution, and Napoleonic Wars had helped spread the concept of nationalism to the Italian people

-a new generation of Italians were being born be believed in the idea of a united Italy...with no Austrian, French, or Papal control

-two of these leading figures were General Giuseppe Garibaldi and King Victor Emmanuel II of the Kingdom of Sardinia
Giuseppe Garibaldi
-Giuseppe Garibaldi was born on July 4, 1807 in the city of Nice...days after Napoleon had conquered the city

-his parents were merchants, so Garibaldi became a captain of a trade ship in 1832 in his parents company

-Garibaldi spent several years as a young man traveling and trading in ports and cities all around Italy

-Garibaldi saw firsthand how the fragmented Italian people were being exploited by the French, Austrians, Ottomans, and the Church

-came to believe that the Italian people would be stronger if they were united as one country
-Garibaldi's nationalist beliefs to continued to grow during his travels

-in 1833 he met Giuseppe Mazzini, the founder/leader of a nationalist group called the Young Italians

-Garibaldi joined the Young Italians and took an oath dedicating himself to unify his homeland and free it Austrian, French, and Church dominance

-the Young Italians were soon labeled as terrorists/rebels by the various Italian kings

-many Young Italian members, including Garibaldi, fled Italy to avoid arrest and/or execution
War in Brazil
-Garibaldi fled to Brazil in 1839, where he was dragged into a civil war between the Brazilian Empire and Republic Rebels

-Garibaldi, needing money, was hired by the rebels to raise and lead their navy

-while serving in the rebel navy, Garibaldi he met a young rebel woman named Anita Ribeiro

-the began a passionate love affair that continued through the war

-the Republic Rebels were defeated in 1841, and Garibaldi and Anita fled to Uruguay to avoid arrest
Uruguayan Civil War
-Garibaldi+Anita got married in the capital Montevideo

-had 4 children together, Anita taught Garibaldi the skills of a "gaucho" or cowboy

-ever the nationalists...Anita+Garibaldi got involved in the Uruguayan Civil War

-Garibaldi served valiantly in many battles and gained valuable leadership+military experience

-feeling more confident, Garibaldi returned to Italy in 1848 with Anita and his children

Return to Italy
-Garibaldi returned to Italy and pledged his loyalty to the Kingdom of Sardinia

-King Charles Albert was only partly committed to Italian unity

-despite Garibaldi's best efforts, lack of supports and troops lead to the failure of the unification movement

-Anita died during the military campaign, and Garibaldi fled to New York
2nd Return to Italy
-Garibaldi's brother died in 1854

-he inherited a huge sum of money from his brother which he would put to good use later

-the Kingdom of Sardinia had a new king by this time, Victor Emmanuel II

-Victor Emmanuel hired Garibaldi to be the lead general of Sardinia's military
King Victor Emmanuel II
-Victor Emmanuel was the son of Charles Albert

-was very ambitious and believed deeply in the cause of Italian nationalism

-wanted to be the king of all Italy, not just Sardinia

-in 1860, Garibaldi, Victor Emmanuel, and the Sardinian set out to unite Italy by force once and for all

Unification of Italy
-the military campaign to unite Italy took two years

-by 1862, all the Italian kingdoms were brought under the rule of Victor Emmanuel II

-the French and Austrian influence had been expelled

-the Papal States were destroyed and Rome was made the new capital of Italy

-Garibaldi would later serve on the Italian parliament and died in 1882
-the Congress of Vienna turned the small, independent countries of the HRE/Confed. of the Rhine into a new alliance

-this alliance was called the German Confederation and Austria was given the responsibility of protecting it

-by 1832 the small Germanic countries were pushing for unification...but needed the support of a bigger more powerful country

-Austria was more concerned with combining with Hungary...but Prussia was interested
-King Wilhelm I of Prussia appointed a new Minister President of the country in 1862

-the new Minister President was a man named Otto von Bismarck

-King Wilhelm and Bismarck were both nationalists and wanted to see Prussia unify with the little countries in the German Confederation

-if Prussia just annexed the countries of the German Confederation, it could be seen as an act of war or aggression by the rest of Europe

-but Otto von Bismarck had a plan...

Austro-Prussian War---1866
-Prussia began courting members of the German Confed. as allies

-Austria felt that this was a breach of the Congress of Vienna

-Bismarck wanted to provoke war with Austria

-he began courting Italy (Austria's rival) as an ally which lead to a declaration of war

-Austria was defeated after only 2 weeks of fighting

-allowed Prussia+the German Confederation to ally without hindrance

-Austria was excluded from all German affairs

Franco-Prussian War
-in 1870 Bismarck instigated a war with France

-when French troops crossed into Confederation territory, Prussia attacked France to "protect their German allies"

-France was soundly defeated after only 9 months

-opened the way for German unification
-the German Confederation+Prussia officially unified as the German Empire in 1871

-King Wilhelm I was the ruler with Otto von Bismarck his second in command

-capital was officially made Berlin

-Germany pursued a policy of imperialism which caused tension among the countries of Europe

-old alliances were not restored and Germany found a new ally in Austria-Hungary
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