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Transcript of Humanitarian Advocacy
ADVOCACY, CAMPAIGNS, THEORY OF CHANGE
TOOLS in ADVOCACY
(Oxfam, in international cooperation): influencing decision makers to change public policies and practices in ways that will have a positive impact on the lives of men and women living in poverty
Advocacy aims to change policies (laws, norms, official rules, etc) and/or practices (the way in which these policies are or aren’t applied).
Influencing decision makers to change public policies and practices in ways that will ensure the
rights to assistance and rights to protection, and to address the causes of the conflicts and disasters.
One Single Approach
Programmes & Advocacy ; Development & Humanitarian
Control & Power
Ethnic and cultural differences
Small Arms Flow
in the politic agenda and the decision process in order to achieve
and improvements for a community or group of people.
Advocacy can take place at a variety of levels and be carried out by various actors - from local communities through to international institutions. It usually consists of a variety of methods including lobbying, media work, and popular campaigning.
This is referred to in various ways, such as a ‘logical model’, ‘programme theory’ or ‘roadmap’, but it is, basically, a model of how the policy influencing activities are envisaged to result in the desired changes in policy or in people’s lives
A ToC is an essential tool for the M&E of policy influence,not only for improving policy influencing projects and enhancing decision-making, but also for accountability and reporting to stakeholders external to the programme.
THEORY OF CHANGE (ToC)
Three common types of ToC
Succession or ‘chain’ of elements and the logical or causal connections between them. Inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and impact, with each element causing or leading to the next one, depending on certain assumptions
Dimensions of influence: this approach looks at the different dimensions of change. This involves a set of areas of outcomes, each of which is presumed to be important in contributing towards policy influence.
Dimensions of Influence
Some frameworks focus on the behaviour change of different actors. Actors are seen as the key driving force for change, with policy-making largely dependent on policy actors and networks, their behaviour, relationships, perspectives and political interests.
Actor Centred Theories
To advocate for something implies to compromise that humanitarian principle
Red Cross Code of Conduct (1994) does not include the neutrality principle
Hum. advocacy & public campaigns + politicization of aid +militarization of aid + new models of conflict
New paradigms in the humanitarian aid
Impartiality: Aid is not based on nationality, race, religion, or political point of view. It must be based on need alone
Neutrality means not to take sides in hostilities or engage at any time in controversies of a political, racial, religious or ideological nature.
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
General Asembly Resolution 46/182
Working with local groups (no matter if religious or defending an ideology)
Flagging the non-neutral aid
Defending the right to communicate
Integration in the UN
Combination of different approaches by different agencies (added value of humanitarian vs human rights agencies)
RIGTHS APPROACH vs ASSISTANCE APPROACH
Right to Protection
Right to Assistance
Right to have a life free of conflicts and deadly impacts of disasters
Addressing the Underlying Causes of Conflict and Disaster (Link to Development)
Protection of civilians in armed conflict according to the international agreements
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
International Humanitarian Law (IHL) including the 1949 Geneva Conventions and 1977 Additional Protocols
The responsibility to Protect (2005)
The right to receive humanitarian assistance in case of conflict or disaster
The two most important international legal instruments relating to those affected by humanitarian crises are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Geneva Conventions. Neither contains a clearly stated ‘right to humanitarian assistance’; nor a right to be protected from predictable threats like storms and floods
However, several authoritative interpretations of these and other key instruments of international law argue that people have a right to both these things
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights‘Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.’ Article 3
The Geneva Conventions: assistance and the law of conflict‘If the civilian population…is not adequately provided with [food, medical supplies, clothing, bedding, shelter and]…other supplies essential to the survival of the civilian population, relief actions which are humanitarian and impartial in character and conducted without any adverse distinctions shall be undertaken’.Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions.
Protection of Civilians
'They came at seven to our village, the janjaweed militia,' she says, the fact that she mentions the time seeming a poignant effort to give some structure to the evil that followed. Her husband was away when the rebels arrived and set about their business - the livestock rounded up, homes torched, men and boys mutilated and murdered, and finally the moment that she replays over and over, when one of the horsemen rode up and, with a machete, decapitated the baby that she held in her arms. She didn't have time to mourn. The murderers took her with them and kept her hostage for 15 days, repeatedly raping and violating her before they moved on
The most urgent and demanded need
Mariella Frostrup in Djabal refugee camp, Chad
The Observer, Sunday 9 September 2007
The United Nations, regional bodies and States have to do much more to accomplish their obligation to ensure the right to protection of civilians and therefore to put this on front of all the decisions.
Examples of protection recommendations
Tools by the International Community
Political and Social instability
Preventive diplomacy; Sanctions; Asset bans; Travel bans, and early warning systems.
Peace Mission (Chapter VII), centred on protection of civilians;
Public Statements of respect of the IHL and ceasefire
Ceasefire and Peace Process
DDR; Arms Control; IDP and Refugees solutions; Transitional Justice; Reform of the Security System,...
Right to assistance
In both Conflict and Disasters
To improve the quality and the quantity of the humanitarian assistance
Building state responsibility and empowering affected people
Improving international assistance
Right to have a life free of conflicts and deadly impacts of disasters
Humanitarian and Development (Sustainability) together (Contiguum)
Safe programming (To avoid increasing threats and where possible reduce them)
Follow Protection Guidelines for sexual violence
Invest in local capacities (local communities, businesses, government) to mediate, negotiate and resolve local conflicts
Include women in all peace negotiations (UN Res 1325)
Given the protection of civilians the highest priority in every military strategy with zero tolerance of abuse by security forces
Incorporate UN Guidelines on Internal Displacement and implement them
Reduce risks of renewed conflict (DDR, poverty reduction, equal access to services, fair judicial system, decrease inequalities)
Regional actors (AU, EU,...)
Develop capacity and will to quickly develop mediation and diplomatic teams at the earliest stage of a foreseeable crisis
Capacity and will to sanctions and incentives targeted on political and military leaders
Military forces to protect civilians
Funding to support regional actors to carry out international mandated (UN) missions
UN Security Council
Demonstrate its capacity and will to quickly develop mediation and diplomatic teams at the earliest stage of a foreseeable crisis
Greater willingness to protect civilians
Improvement of the UN and other peacekeeping operations to proactively protect civilians
Ensure training of UN PK missions personnel in protection, sexual violence and gender issues
Report about efforts to uphold its Responsibility to Protect
Protection of civilians as a cornerstone of every government's foreign policy
Build national capacities for the implementation of the RtP
Press for an effective Arms Trade Treaty
Examples of assistance recommendations
Governments must reinforce national and local capacity to respond in emergencies and to reduce people’s vulnerability; donor governments and others must substantially increase their support to help them do that
Communities must be empowered to demand that governments and others fulfill their obligations to safeguard their lives, as well as to respond to and prepare for disasters themselves;
The international community, including regional organizations, must use mediation and diplomacy far more robustly to press states to assist their own citizens.
Governments, donors, the UN, and humanitarian agencies must ensure that humanitarian needs are properly assessed; and that aid is implemented impartially, according to need, and to appropriate international standards, accountable to its beneficiaries, sensitive to particular vulnerabilities (including by gender, age, and disability), and supporting and building on local capacity wherever possible
Non-OECD donors must follow the same standards as OECD ones (OECD to do more for the Good Hum Donorship); OECD donors should do much more to include non-OECD donors in their co-ordination mechanisms
UN agencies must provide better leadership and coordination of the international humanitarian response. Individual NGO and UN organizations must support a more coordinated international response, supportive of national authorities, while preserving their independence;
Donors must work much more closely together to ensure that there is adequate funding to support timely, effective, and good-quality humanitarian action
Adopt disaster risk-reduction measures combining early warning, preparedness plans, effective communication, and grassroots community mobilisation;
Invest in sustainable livelihoods so that people have secure incomes and food;
Improve urban planning
Invest in public services and infrastructure so that public-health risks are reduced
KEY CONCEPTS ADVOCACY STRATEGY
Advocacy strategy and planning: tools and actions
3.5.-Selection of tools and actions
Ask yourself what might be the best way of influencing our targets – will they be convinced by research and evidence, or will they respond better to public pressure?
Consider how you might use the following tactics:
- Research reports (based on field visits, interviews or desk studies)␣
- Policy Development (agreeing where we stand on something)
- Working with and through partners and allies
- Lobbying (alongside partners and allies, plan for face- to-face contact with a range of targets).␣
- Media (consider angles, which media, use of celebrities, etc.)␣
- Popular Mobilisation (email/SMS/postcard actions, stunts, community mobilisation, etc)
3.2.- Specific Objectives
Specific objectives are the changes we need to achieve as a contribution to realising the overall aim. (Theory of Change)
Try to keep objectives SMART: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timebound.
3.3.- Stakeholders identification
We can divide them in four different groups:
Group 1: Stakeholders directly affected by the problem ( i.e local communities, villages)
Group 2: Institutional actors, decision-makers that can facilitate the solution to the problem (national government, regional government, community authorities…)
Group 3: Social actors working on the issue (Media, national NGOs)
Group 4: International actors: UN agencies, international NGO, donors, international companies
Advocacy strategy and planning
Advocacy strategy and planning: Planification
Planning our advocacy strategy is essential for:
Clarifying the overall aim and specific objectives
Actors analysis and identification : target and partners
Choosing the key messages
Making the selection of the most suitable advocacy methods and tools
Setting an events and opportunities calendar
Analysing the potential risks
Defining the needed human and financial resources
Advocacy strategy and planning: targets and partners
Targets and partners
Targets: actors who have the power to solve the problem or achieve our objectives. These may be government departments, donors, international institutions like the UN, or local officials.
Partners: actors that have influence on the decision-makers and that can help us to achieve our objectives ( national and international NGO, Media, etc)
2.-Research and analysis
Once we have identified the problem, we need to gather reliable and accurate information, in order to:
Understand the context
Learn lessons from successful and failed past experiences
Provide data and past experiences for strengthening our arguments
Advocacy strategy and planning: Research and analysis
Advocacy strategy and planning: Problem identification
1.- Problem analysis and identification
The first step is identifying the problem that
have to be solved.
By analysing causes and different aspects of the
problem, as well as its different impacts on men
and women, we will be in a position of
designing the most appropriate advocacy
methods and actions.
Some quick questions for an advocacy strategy:
What is our goal? What are our objectives?
Who is our target?. Who makes the key decisions?; who have the power of changing things? (national government, regional government, Regional Committees, local communities, international organisations, etc…)
Who are our « natural » partners?; can we work or collaborate with them?; can we ask for the help of potential partners that have some influence on the target group?
What are the risks associated to an advocacy campaign?; what can we do for reducing those risks?
What are the most suitable methods that we could use?
Advocacy strategy and planning
And advocacy strategy must be:
Clear about the goal
Focused on the aspects where we have an added value or a capacity for influencing on decisions-makers
Flexible and dynamic for adapting to a changing context
Clear about the needed human and financial resources
Direct security threats for the communities, for our partners or for ourselves
Restrictions on our ability to operate, for example increased scrutiny of our activities or introduction of bureaucratic impediments by local or national government officials.
Damage to long-standing relationships, for example in instances where some of our partners, donors or advocacy targets may not agree with our positions or our advocacy approach.
Damage to our organisation’s reputation when we publicly get something wrong
Before starting the implementation of our advocacy plan, we have to carefully analyse the risks that could affect the affected population or our organisation.
What could be the potential risks of an advocacy campaign in your country?
Advocacy strategy and planning: Risks
Advocacy strategy and planning: opportunities and events
3.6.-Creating an « Events calendar »
Together with colleagues in regions and
advocacy offices, decision-making moments, or events that could
help us achieve our objectives.
Where there are limited or no high profile external events, we may have to create our own opportunities (like paper launches, media events, national and regional elections, etc.)
Advocacy strategy planning : key messages
For each objective, define one or two key messages that need to underpin all of our communications, written and oral.
Those messages will be adapted depending on the targets and chosen methods to pass them.
3.1.- Overall aim
The overall aim is the intention of our
advocacy plan; it is a declaration of what
we want to achieve, of what we think we have
to get in order to solve the problem
It's advisable to do a good analysis for clarifying the causes and the effects.
Advocacy strategy and planning: Writing the Plan
4.- Action / Implementation
2.- Research and Analysis
1.- Problem Identification
The MESSAGE is transmitted by different METHODS
We have to advocate at all levels where decisions are taken.
The decisions taken at the highest level affect to all levels below.
DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ADVOCACY
We can advocate at different levels
We can organise an advocacy plan at different levels.
Matrice pour l’analyse de pouvoir des acterus /
Actors power analysis / matriz de poder
HAUT / HIGH /ALTO
FAIBLE / LOW/ BAJO
Niveau d’influence sur le problème / Influence level /
Nivel de influencia
Pas d’accord (Fully disagree with us)
Très d’accord (Agree with us)
Niveau d’accord avec notre position / Level of agreement with our position/ nivel de acuerdo con nuestra postura
Planification et stratégie d’un plaidoyer:
Analyse du pouvoir / Power Analysis / Matriz de poder
Advocacy strategy and planning: Resources
3.8.-Resources and Responsibilities assignment
1.- Human Resources : A project manager must be identified, and responsible for ensuring the delivery of the whole strategy.
2.- Financial Resources: a detailed budget for the implementation of the Advocacy Plan is needed
3.- Activities schedule
Advocacy strategy and planning
The use of electric cars becomes massive
The government subsidizes electric cars purchases
There is an extensive network of battery charges in towns
There are priority lines for electric cars in town's roads
There is awareness of the impacts of the oil car's pollution in the human's health
Letters, meetings, seminars, emails, telephone calls.
The next REACT course has 8 hours of advocacy instead of 4
REACT Programme Coordinator
Students of this course
WHY, ON WHAT and HOW ADVOCATE
From the beginning of the humanitarianism: Henry Dunant created ICRC in 1863 advocating to decision makers for the introduction of humanity in the war.
Allows the population to access the assistance
Improves the impact of the assistance
Expand the assistance further of the reach of the organization
Improve the quality of the humanitarian response
Address the causes of the crisis
On what and how depends on each organization
From ICRC to MSF
Six ICRC French doctors (Bernard Kouchner among them) criticizing the silent diplomacy of ICRC in Biafra war 1970: new aye of advocacy: the testimony (témoignage)
More or less advocacy, more or less public advocacy, only advocacy on some topics, only operational advocacy (the one more related to the porgrammes),...
From MSF to MdM
As many stands as organizations
Fifteen French doctors (Bernard Kouchner among them again) who disagreed with the "political neutrality" of MSF
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
March 2013. Seleka Rebels from the north (most of them muslims) seized the capital. Bozizé fled the country
Septembrer 2013. Djotodia (new President) dissolves Seleka coalition, but failing to control the fighters who did not want to be disarmed
December 2013. Anti-Balaka fighters (Christians) and ex Seleka fighters accused of killing hundred of people.
December 2013. Deployment of an international force leaded by AU and deployment of additional french troops.
April 2014. UN security Council authorises a UN peacekeeping force.
September 2014. Deployment of MINUSCA (12000 troops)
May 2015. Peace Forum in Bangui.
It is more used in social change
Addressing root causes
Implementation through local partners
Working with local partners
Identifying connection between local and global challenges
Delivering goods and services
Rights to protection and assistance. (No actual neutrality)
Risks and vulnerability reduction
Several goals. Civil society is plural and there are different points of view.
Participation in the complex politic life, both in economic developing and developed countries
Increasing difficulties to access population in need.
Humanitarian space is shrinking (also with militarization of aid and complex type of conflicts)