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Copy of Copy of Copy of Respiratory

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deb Parker

on 21 March 2016

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Copy of Respiratory

Chapter 19 Eliopoulos
General Nursing Considerations for Respiratory Conditions
Prompt medical attention with signs of respiratory infection
Atypical presentation
No chest pain
Lower body temperature
Changes in character of sputum
Monitor closely to minimize disability and prevent mortality
Assess to detect respiratory complications
Respiratory rate and volume; pulse; blood pressure; temperature; neck veins; patency of airway; cough; secretions; mental status

Respiratory health vital for physically, mentally, and socially active life
Lifetime of insults to respiratory system takes its toll during older age
Respiratory diseases leading to cause of disability; fourth leading cause of death



Respiratory Issues
Chapter 19

Respiratory problems develop easily; difficult to manage
Changes occur in upper airway paths, nose, and trachea
Reduce cough
Lungs reduce in size and weight
Decreased elastic recoil
Alveoli less elastic
Reduction in vital capacity; increase residual volume
Loose or brittle teeth can be aspired

Effects of Aging on Respiratory Health
Prevention of infection
Influenza and pneumonia vaccines important
Avoiding exposure to people with respiratory infections
Deep-breathing exercises
Smoking cessation
Immobility major threat
Caution with self-treatment of respiratory issues
Review of medications
Consider environmental factors

Respiratory Health Promotion
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: group of diseases; higher in women and smokers
Asthma
Chronic bronchitis
Emphysema
Lung cancer
Lung abscess

Respiratory Conditions
Asthma
Can develop in older years
High risk of complications of bronchiectasis, cardiac problems
High rates of mortality
Assess for causative factors and educate patient
Evaluate aerosol nebulizers’ use
Precaution: avoid adverse drug effects

Chronic Bronchitis
Causes persistent, productive cough; wheezing; recurrent respiratory infections; shortness of breath
Management of chronic bronchitis
Remove bronchial secretions
Prevent obstruction of airway
Maintain adequate fluid intake

Emphysema
Increasing incidence in older adults
Causes: chronic bronchitis, chronic irritation, and morphologic changes in the lung
Cigarette smoking major role in development
Symptoms develop slowly; can delay diagnosis, treatment
Treatment
Postural drainage, bronchodilators, avoid stress, and breathing exercises
Education and support

Lung Cancer
Increasing incidence in 65 years and older
Higher incidence in men than in women
Incidence and mortality rate varies in ethnic groups
Incidence in smokers twice as nonsmokers
Symptoms: dyspnea, coughing, chest pain, fatigue, anorexia, wheezing, and respiratory infections
Treatment: surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy

Lung Abscess
Causes: pneumonia, tuberculosis, malignancy, trauma, and aspiration
Symptoms: anorexia, weight loss, elevated temperature, and chronic cough
Diagnosis: same as other age groups
Treatment: postural drainage; high-protein, high-calorie diet
Full transcript