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Mythology

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Katlyn Crews

on 20 July 2013

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Transcript of Mythology

Mythology Greek and Roman Athens, Greece Mount Olympus
Home of the Greek Gods Who Are the Greek Gods??? Aphrodite (Greek) OR
Venus (Roman)

Goddess of Love and Beauty –

symbols:
scallop shell
the dolphin
the swan
the dove (a pair of either pull her chariot) Aphrodite (a-fro-DIE-tee) was the Greek goddess of love. Naturally she was always falling in love with somebody, or somebody was falling in love with her. She is one of the oldest goddesses, the daughter of Zeus. The most famous story about Aphrodite is that she started the Trojan War. Apollo (Greek and Roman)

God of Music –

symbols:
the lyre (a stringed instrument like a harp with a u-shaped frame)
a crown of victory made of laurel leaves
a golden, four-horse chariot to pull the sun across the sky Apollo is a younger god, the son of Zeus and the nymph Leto, and the twin brother of Artemis. The Greeks often thought of Apollo as being the same as Helios, the Sun god, or the same as the sun, and so he is one of the sky gods who always beat out the earth gods in Greek myths. Apollo's younger brother is Hermes.

Apollo does not marry or have many children, though sometimes he falls in love. Apollo is a wise god who can tell the future, and his temple at Delphi was a famous oracle, a place where people went to find out what was going to happen. One of his sons is Asclepius, the god of medicine. Apollo is also a musician who plays the lyre. Artemis (Greek) OR
Diana (Roman)

Goddess of the moon and hunting –

symbol:
the moon
deer
a silver bow and arrow Apollo had a twin sister named Artemis, who was also the daughter of Zeus and the nymph Leto. Artemis never marries or has any children; she is a wild goddess who spends most of her time hunting.

The Greeks thought Artemis was the same thing as the moon - the moon was Artemis, and Artemis was the moon. But at other times the Greeks painted pictures of Artemis looking like a girl. Athena (Greek) OR
Minerva (Roman)

Goddess of War and Wisdom –

symbols:
the owl
snake
olive branch Athena is one of the younger goddesses; she is the child of Zeus. She has no mother. The story is that Athena was born, fully grown and armed, out of the head of Zeus. One day Zeus complained that he had a headache, and Hephaistos came and banged him on the head with an axe and out popped Athena!
Athena has no husband either. She doesn't fall in love and she doesn't have children.


Athena helps Hercules hold up the sky Athena is the goddess of wisdom; her symbol is the owl (the wise bird). She's the patron goddess of the city of Athens, and her owl appears on Athenian silver coins. She is also a war goddess, which is why she is usually shown fully armed, with her shield and sword. Eros (Greek) OR
Cupid (Roman)

God of Love –

symbol:
the bow and arrow (a golden arrow for love and a lead arrow for hate) Ares is the god of war, and so he is a rather irrational god. He enters into people and causes rage, so that they want to go fight. He always carries his spear and wears a helmet, ready for battle! Ares is sometimes said to be Aphrodite's boyfriend (though it's not clear what it means, that love and war would be attached to each other). Ares doesn't appear in stories much. Demeter
For the Greeks, Demeter is an earth goddess; her name is De, which means earth (the same word as Gaia) and meter, which means mother. Demeter is the goddess of growing things, especially of grains like wheat and barley and millet. Hades was the god of the dead, who ruled the place where dead people went after they died. He is a rather shadowy figure in more ways than one, spooky, and the Greeks preferred not to talk about him too much. He is known for his helmet of invisibility and Cerberus, his 3-headed dog. Generally people who had good intentions did not sacrifice to Hades either. Hephaistos
is the blacksmith god, The god of volcanoes and hot fires and smelting metal ore to make iron. People said he lived inside volcanoes, and when they erupted it was because Hephaistos was moving around.

Hephaistos was Hera's son, and was not thought of as having had any father. People said that Zeus had thrown him off Mount Olympus down to earth, and he had injured his legs in his fall and couldn't walk well. Hera is the sister and wife of Zeus (the Greeks did not approve of this arrangement for real people but they thought it was okay for gods). (Compare the Egyptian gods, who also marry their sisters). So Hera is also the daughter of Earth (Rhea) and Time (Chronos).
Hera is usually thought of as responsible for marriage and the family, and Greek men thought of her as mean and selfish and generally unpleasant to be around. She's always getting mad at Zeus about something. But people did sacrifice to her, especially at a wedding. Hera (Greek) OR
Juno (Roman)

Queen of the Gods and Goddess of Marriage and Protector of Women –

symbols:
the cuckoo bird on a scepter
a peacock
pomegranate Heracles (Greek) OR
Hercules (Roman)

God of Strength –

symbol:
a club
a lion’s skin
twin pillars Hercules was half man and half god. His mother was a mortal. But his father was a king - a very special king, the king of all the gods, the mighty Zeus. But Hercules did not know he was part god until he had grown into a man.

Right from the beginning, Hera, Zeus' wife, was very jealous of Hercules. She tried all kinds of ways to kill him, including sending a couple of big snakes into his crib. Hercules crushed those snakes in a flash! Hercules was incredibly strong, even as a baby!

Zeus loved his little son. He figured that sooner or later Hera might actually find a way to kill little Hercules. To keep his small son safe from attack, Zeus sent him to live with a mortal family on earth. Hercules grew up loved and noble. But he didn't fit in on earth. He was too big and too strong. One day, his earth father told him he was a god, well, part god anyway. Hermes is a god of boundaries, borders and edges. Because of this, he's also in charge of things that cross borders, like messages or travelers. He is the messenger of the Greek gods; his father, Zeus, often sends Hermes to earth when he has something to say to a person. For instance, Hermes carries messages to Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, and to Alcmena in Plautus' Amphitryo.

Hermes was also the god who took care of you when you went on a trip. Many Greek people always sacrificed to Hermes before they traveled. Hermes also guided dead souls to the afterlife.

People thought of Hermes as being younger than the other gods, clever, quick and tricky. He likes to play tricks on the other gods: crossing boundaries in another way. You could compare him to other trickster figures in other cultures, like Anansi in Africa or Br'er Rabbit in North America. He's also like the Egyptian god Thoth. Hermes (Greek) OR
Mercury (Roman)

God of Travel and Messenger God –

symbols:
winged sandals
a broad-brimmed low-crowned hat called a petasos, only his has with wings Hestia

She is one of the daughters of Rhea and Kronos, and so she is the sister of Hera and Demeter.

Hestia is the goddess of the house, and of the hearth (fireplace) within the house, so she is the goddess of safety, security, doing your duty, taking care of things. Probably even though she is not in very many stories, she was actually a pretty important goddess, who was worshiped at home, as part of the ritual of lighting a fire or moving into a new house, or getting married. The Greeks thought of Poseidon as a god of violent, unpredictable movement. He is most often the god of the ocean, which is of course the biggest, most unpredictable, and most dangerous thing around. Many Greeks spent a lot of time sailing on the ocean, and they paid a lot of attention to Poseidon.

But Poseidon is also the god of earthquakes, and earthquakes are also very common in Greece. He stamps his foot, or he hits the earth with his trident (like a pitchfork) to make an earthquake. Poseidon (Greek) OR
Neptune (Roman)

God of the Sea –

symbol:
the trident (three-pronged spear)
sea horses Zeus was, for many people in ancient Greece, the king of the gods. He is shown this way in Homer's Iliad, for example.

He is a sky god: people thought of him as living on top of a mountain (Mount Olympus), and when he is angry he throws lightning bolts out of the sky at people. Zeus probably was not worshipped in Greece before the Indo-European Greeks arrived there in the Middle Bronze Age. King of Mount Olympus/Weather God –

symbols:
the eagle
thunderbolt
oak tree Zeus (Greek) OR Jupiter (Roman) Greece has always been a little bit outside of things - on the edge of West Asia, and at the edge of Europe. Being outsiders, though, has given people who live there more freedom to experiment with new ideas and new ways of doing things. A lot of new ideas - like organized troops of soldiers, democracy, history, and logical proofs - have come from Greece. Ancient Greece Can you think of something we have today, because of the Greeks?? Democracy Herodotus He has been called the "Father of History", and was the first historian known to collect his materials in an order and arrange them in a well-constructed and vivid narrative. Aristotle His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. First developed on the city-state of Athens, Greece. The Greeks created the world’s first democracy. The government consisted of over 6,000 assembly members all of whom were adult male citizens. The assembly voted on issues throughout Athens, and passed laws. Today we still use a democracy but now instead of using a direct democracy we use a representative democracy. (The citizens democratically vote on who should make the decisions in the country.) In Greece a direct democracy was used and the citizens actually voted on the decision.

http://www.brainpop.com/socialstudies/worldhistory/democracy/
Alphabet The Greeks were the first civilization to use an alphabet. The Alphabet was developed after the Dark Age when the Greeks stopped using their previous written language. The Greek alphabet had 24 letters and believe it or not the word "alphabet" originates from the first 2 letters of the Greek alphabet; alpha, and beta. Today many letters of our modern alphabet originate from the Greek alphabet such as the letters A, B, E, and O. Library The first library in the world, the library of Alexandria was actually built in Egypt (under Greek control). The Library contained over 700,000 scrolls of work! Also all ships that went into the Alexandrian harbor had to declare if they had any works of science or philosophy. If they did the work was copied and placed in the library and the captain would receive the original copy back. Many great discoveries happened in the library such as the calculated the circumference of the earth and when Hero drew up plans for steam power. Today we have many libraries all over the world with billions of works of literature. Olympics The Olympic Games started in ancient Greece. The participants were the city-states of Ancient Greece and their colonies. The Olympic Games were held every 4 years in honor of Zeus, the king god. The prizes for winning the Olympic Games in Greece were fame, and glory along with having statues of the winners erected and sometimes even having the winners faces put on coins.

Today we still celebrate the Olympic Games, and many things are similar such as the olive leaf crowns and opening and closing celebrations.

http://www.brainpop.com/socialstudies/culture/olympics/
Ancient Rome The ancient Romans were realists, not idealists. You can see this in their statues. The Greeks made statues of perfect people. The Romans created real life statues. A statue of one of the Roman emperors is a good example. His nose is huge! The ancient Greeks would never have done that. The Romans built roads all over the empire, and all roads led to Rome. The ancient Greeks had roads, but they were not built nearly as well, and the Greek's roads did not connect in any particular order. Connect to what? Each Greek city-state was its own unit. In ancient Rome, Rome was the heart of the empire! Rome is now the capital city of Italy. 2,000 years ago it was the centre of the Roman Empire. Building started in 753 BC. The Romans had a story to explain how Rome began.
The Republic - Senate

The republic was ruled by a Senate. Rich men, called senators, ran the government. Poor men (called plebeians) had much less power. The plebeians fought for fairer treatment. A plebeian, who was a free man (someone who was not a slave), could be a Roman citizen. People in lands conquered by the Romans could become citizens too. Women and slaves though, could not be citizens - so they could not vote in elections.

http://www.brainpop.com/socialstudies/worldhistory/romanrepublic/
Arches

Arches have existed for roughly 4,000 years, but the ancient Romans were the first to effectively harness their power in the construction of bridges, monuments and buildings. The ingenious design of the arch allowed the weight of buildings to be evenly distributed along various supports, preventing massive Roman structures like the Colosseum from crumbling under their own weight. Sewer systems & Aqueducts

Without the creation of the aqueduct, many areas in the ancient Roman empire would not have had access to water. The aqueduct was tunnels and canals that allowed water to be distributed throughout the empire. This allowed for public toilets, bathes with hot water, underground sewage systems and working fountains. Sandals Concrete
The Romans found out that if they added pozzolanic earth from volcanic regions to the traditional concrete that it would cure much faster than normal. This addition also made the concrete waterproof. This discovery is the reason that we now have underwater tunnels, and it also help make domed roofs possible. Roads
Road networks

the Romans created an extensive network of roads that connected all of the important cities together. The road network that they created is very similar to the street and highway system that is used today. Roman Numerals

http://www.brainpop.com/math/numbersandoperations/romannumerals/
The Story of Rome's Beginning
(Myth)


Twin boys, Romulus and Remus, were the sons of Mars (the Roman god or war) and Rhea. She loved her boys, but there were plots afoot by other gods and goddesses to harm her father, herself, her husband, and her children. To protect the boys, she set them adrift on the river, hoping someone would find them. Who would not love such beautiful boys? The babies floated to land, and a mother wolf fed and cared for them. Later a herdsman looked after the twins until they grew up.

Years later, Mars told his twin sons to build a city where they had been found. The city was Rome. One day, Remus made fun of the wall Romulus had built around the city. The twins argued, fought, and Romulus killed Remus. Today, historians and archaeologists agree that people were living in Rome long before 753 BC, but the legend is one of the most famous in world history. Can you think of a few things we have today thanks to the Romans?? Can you see the difference's between the two societies?? Rome, Italy *NOTICE*
You will see in the following videos examples of fine art, made by the Ancient Roman's and Greek's. Some of the marble statues or images will be nude. During their time it was considered a form of beauty to be able to portray an "ideal figure". In other cases the bodies would have been covered with cloth. Please appreciate the artists work and the historical value of the art itself. Who are the Greeks and the Roman's? Compare and contrast the differences. Now that you have learned about the Greeks,
let us see how the Romans compare :) Write 5 facts you find interesting in the video to turn in at the end of class.

Must be complete sentences
Write your name at the top of the paper
If you have questions, write them down and ask once the video is over
ENJOY :) SO why do we need to know all of this?? In order to learn about the different God's we need to know who developed, what the people were like in order to understand the stories. We think of mythology as a collection of stories.

Understanding the beginning of the story, the creation of the world, allows us to have a starting outlook as we learn about the different myths.
The myths tell us how the Greeks and then Romans viewed the creation of the world. In the beginning, the universe was without form. It was not nothing; there was matter, but it was unorganized, shapeless, mixed up and dark. This was called Chaos.

After Chaos, more divinities, or gods, came into being. Gaia, the Earth, held up Uranus, the sky. Gaia and Uranus had a bunch of kids. First they had a bunch of monsters including the Cyclops, and then they created the Titans as the second generation. Uranus hated all the Titans and was actually quite ugly about it – but there are only a couple of Titans that you need to remember: first, Oceanus, the god of the sea, and then Cronus, the strongest and best one of all. Gaia was pretty ticked at Uranus for being a jerk, so she helped Cronus overthrow him. So, let’s keep this straight. Cronus is Uranus’s son. Cronus became the king (bye-bye Uranus), and married his sister, Rhea – another Titan. It’s like a soap opera. This was called the Golden Age because men, who had been made by a Titan named Prometheus, were living in harmony. Everything was hunky dory.

It didn’t last, though, because Cronus heard a prophecy that one of his sons would dethrone him, so every time his wife, Rhea, had a baby, he swallowed it. Rhea got a little sick of seeing all of her children swallowed alive, so she tricked Cronus when her sixth
child, Zeus, was born; she wrapped up a rock to look like a baby and had Cronus swallow that instead. Zeus rescued his previously swallowed siblings, and all was right with the world. Let us take a minute to hear who the male God's were. Let us take a minute to hear who the female God's were. Now that he have the beginning, let us learn a little about Zeus and his family...

http://www.brainpop.com/socialstudies/worldhistory/greekgods/
Where did they live? For the Greeks, Dionysus was a fertility god like Demeter. But while Demeter was the goddess of dry things growing, like grain, Dionysus was the god of wet things growing, like fruit of all kinds, but especially grapes (and the wine that people made from grapes).

Dionysus was a god known for his lightheartedness and always offered his help to anyone in need. He was therefore very popular among gods and mortals and many festivals were being held every year in his honor.

Dionysus was one of the Olympian gods who actually did not live in Mount Olympus but was constantly traveling around the world together with Satyrs to discover the secrets of winemaking.



Dionysus (Greek) or
Bacchus (Roman)

The Greek God of Wine, Joy and Theatre and a Lover of Peace


The symbols:
Thyrsos (a wooden stick wrapped with ivy leaves and vines)
the flute
the wine barrels
panther and the tiger http://www.brainpop.com/socialstudies/worldhistory/athens/
The Rise of Rome

http://www.brainpop.com/socialstudies/worldhistory/riseoftheromanempire/

The Fall of Rome

http://www.brainpop.com/socialstudies/worldhistory/falloftheromanempire/
Full transcript