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The Inca Empire
Transcript of The Inca Empire
South Pacifc Ocean
Atlantic Ocean What effect did the geographic setting have on the civilization that grew there? Since the huacas were close by, they were represented as a threat to the Incas.
The land was scarce; different tribes wanted to take over it.
There was rugged mountains that were difficult to climb over. Were they geographically isolated from other civilizations? They were isolated well, but there were several attemps of tribes that passed along the boarder. Time Period How long were they around? •From 700 BCE to 1534. When were they at their peak? •In 16 and 17 AD. When did they fall? •They ended in 1534, because Cuzco fell in The Battle of Teocajas. When did they emerge as a civilization? •In 1100 AD. Government What were their courts like? •They did not have a prison.
•For serious crimes such as murder, stealing and blasphemy offenders were executed by being pushed off a cliff.
•Less serious crimes were punished by cutting off the hands or blinding.
•The king decided the punishments. What type of laws did they have? •You can’t curse the Gods.
•You can’t change empires.
•At age 10, they most beautiful girls were selected to be chosen women. What type of ruler-ship did they have? •They had a fair ruler-ship.
•Their ruler-ship was based on the Spanish. (When they took over)
•Cuzco was the ruler between 16 AD and 17 AD. How were they organized? •They were set up like a pyramid with the Sapa Inca at the top.
•They created an efficient network of roads.
•Their road system was the most advanced transportation in pre-Columbian South America. Economy What were their major products for trade? The Inca traded squash, sweet potatoes, and fruits.
The lower valleys gave sweet potatoes, squash, beans, chili peppers, peanuts and cotton.
The hills above made white potatoes, Quinta, coca, medicine, feathers, and animal skin.
The highlanders did manufacture and crafts.
Gold was their favorite thing to trade. How did their geography affect their trade? The geography helped their trade because they had a lot of access to rivers and lakes.
It was also hard to trade because land was scarce and the Andes Mountains caused land routes to be difficult. What role did trade and commerce have in this civilization? They traded among themselves.
They also traded with nearby empires.
It helped them gain and plant more food. Was their economy based on a division of social classes? •Yes, they were the nobles and commoners.
•Nobles ran the government, controlled the army, and had a rich style of life.
•Commoners were mostly farmers.
•Commoners would grow crops for themselves, the priests, the nobles, and the emperor.
•People stayed in the class they were born in. Commoners Nobles Beliefs Were they polytheistic, or monotheistic? •They were polytheistic.
•They had several gods, but they worshiped two main gods; their names were Inti (the sun god), and Viracocha (the supreme god). Did they belief in life after death? Was their religion and their government combined? •Yes, it was because they made several sacrifices to the gods, and it was mandatory as part of their government. What kind of religion or worship did they practice? •They left no written record of their religion.
•These were mostly animal sacrifices, but sometimes human too.
•The Incas had used sacred objects, and held rituals on sacred locations.
•There were ceremonies of huacas; they were placed into holes and offerings were periodically brought to them. • Yes, they did belief in life after death.
• The Incas buried personal belongings with the dead.
• They mummified their dead.
• They also had a funeral for one every 8 days. Technology What innovations were made in this civilization? •Machu Picchu
They also had rope bridges to get around and tied knots to remember things called Khipus. Did they have a calendar? •Yes, they had the “Incan Calendar”.
•The Incas had both solar and lunar calendar systems, but they were never written down.
The use the sun to tell when the new month will begin. How did they build their buildings/roads? •They used natural outcroppings of stones found on mountain tops.
•Incas may have used clay or gravel to reduce friction.
•They built their roads of large stones, only the Inca labourers were building them.
They used a grid system to build their cities and make hem blend in with their surrounding. Did they have irrigation systems? •They made systems for bringing fresh drinking water from fountains and clear mountain streams to the Inca cities.
•They also had routes that they used every day in their society.
They used terrace to keep water from over flowing. Writing What form of communication did they use? •They used stone roads to allow runners to give verbal messages. What type of writing did they have? •They used cord color, cord length, knot type, and knot location, which is called Quipu. Was it used by other civilizations as well? •No, it was used only for the Inca empire. Why did it develop? •It was used to give information throughout the Inca Empire.
They could keep track of their history, people, and taxes without writing it down. Was it pictographic? Can we read it today? No it was not pictographic.
You can not read it very well, but you can read the numbers Art/Architecture: What was their agriculture like? •Temples and palaces were built of carefully selected ashlars of white granite.
•The temples and palaces were built slightly inward.
It was simple, yet formal.
They used simple designs, but added gold to make it look better. What were their main forms of art? •They were pottery, fabrics, small gold, silver structures, and vases. What can we learn about them from their art? •They were superb stone masons.
•They used simply stone to make things.
•They were religious with their pottery. What role did the arts have in this civilization? Most of the Inca art was melted down by the Spanish to satisfy their lust for gold and silver.
Their art was sometimes spiritual and the designs never changed significantly. Slavery Were the cities built by forced labor? Yes, some were built by forced labor, like the Machu Picchu.
Farmers & slaves contributed to building the cities and housing. How was slavery a part of this civilization? •They did use slavery on captured trespassers remanding from wars.
•They didn’t use slavery in with their own people.
Slaves were the Workers of the Incas, along with the farmers. Was slavery based on race? They were just the remaining people from the wars.
The workers and entire empire were the same race. Was it permanent? It was permanent based on the empire, they were used to build and grow cops for the kings.
It was not permanent to the slave individuals, they were free of their duties at about 60 years of age. Rise and Fall Were they conquered? •They were conquered by the Spanish; the Spanish took over their empire.
•They were also conquered by the Mexicans; they demanded for the Inca’s gold. Did they conquer another civilization? Not in the early years.
They did take over different cities once the Spanish took over; they made them have the Inca culture. Could they have stayed in power if their geographic location had been different? •They would have still be in power for a few more years, but they would have been discovered soon.
•They needed the resources they had there, so they couldn’t move anywhere else. What caused this civilization to rise and fall? •The Incas had rose because they built the most accurate routes, and they grew many crops.
•They had fallen because the Spanish had discovered them, barely with 100 years of control in the Andes Mountains. Contributions Are there any lasting contributions still seen today? Yes, their architecture still stands today.
We still see freeze dried foods, stonework, and textiles. What were the major contributions of this civilization to the world at their time? •Their architecture and terrace farming was the main contribution back then.
•Their labor-force also was a contribution; they made many foods. (freeze-dried foods) What did they leave us? •Machu Picchu
•Their writing system
Left ruins of their great civilization and art work. What caused it? The Inca's great roads allowed the Spanish to enter the empire leading to its downfall. Was there a period in their history when they had a lot of money, power, art, trade, and food? They did all the time, but grew more power once the Spanish took over. How long did it last? Why did it end? Lasted until the Spanish took over and destroyed the Inca Empire.
It ended in the late 1500’s and early 1600’s in a war when Cuzco died. Did this civilization have a golden age? •Yes, it was of peace and prosperity. Golden Age Bibliography:
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