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Freshwater: Rivers, Streams, Watershed

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by

Diep Stamps

on 26 February 2016

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Transcript of Freshwater: Rivers, Streams, Watershed

River Systems
Tributary
Smaller streams and rivers that feed into a main river.
Source
: where the river begins.
The many small streams that come together at the source of the river are called the
headwaters
.

Mouth
The
mouth
is the point at which a river ends and enters into a larger body of water –a larger river, a lake, or an ocean





Divide


Watersheds are divided by high ground like hills and mountains. An elevated region that separates two watersheds is called a
divide
.
Bank and River Bed
Oxbow Lake
Flood Plain
How does a river shape the land surrounding it?
Rivers wear away landforms through
erosion
and build new landforms
through
deposition
.
Watershed
A watershed is the land area that supplies water to a river system.
Meanders
A bend or turn in a river's channel
3% Freshwater
Lakes and ponds
Wetlands
Glaciers and icebergs
Groundwater
Rivers and
Streams
Essential Question
:
How do rivers begin?
Rivers begin as trickles of water that run over the ground and join together in larger streams.
Warm-up
What happens to the water that lands on the pavement?
Warm-up Answer:

It runs across the pavement, following the slope of the pavement down into the street or into a storm drain.

Small trickles join to form larger streams.
What happens to runoff that lands on grass?
Water that lands on grassy soil soaks in the ground....infiltration.

Tributaries flow toward the main river in a
downhill path
due to the pull of gravity.
A river and all of its tributaries together make up a
river system
.
Headwaters
Source
Banks
are the sides of a river or stream between which the water normally flows.
The
river bed
is the bottom of the river

Channel
A
channel
is an area that contains flowing water confined by banks.

Flood Plain

A broad, flat valley
through which the river flows.
A watershed is also called a
drainage basin
.
The
Continental Divide
is the longest divide in North America and it follows the line of the Rocky Mountains.
Essential Question
:
How does a river shape the land surrounding it?
1.
Erosion
The process by which soil and rock (sediments) are moved from one location to another. Water is the major agent of erosion.
River erosion
is the gradual removal of rock material from the river banks and bed.
Exp:
This kind of erosion formed the Grand Canyon (eroded by the Colorado River).
River Erosion
Grand Canyon
Erosion and Energy of the River
The
faster
the water flows, the
more energy
it has, and the more erosion it can cause.
A fast moving stream/river can carry
larger
sediments along than streams/rivers that move slowly.
3 Factors that affect the SPEED of a RIVER
1.
Steepness of the slope
-water flows faster downhill
2.
Volume of water

-the more water, the faster a river flows
3.
Shape of the channel
-Water that rubs against the sides and
bottom of a channel slows down due to
friction. Water flows more quickly in a
broad, deep channel
Erosion carries sediment along until they eventually settle in a new location. This is called
deposition
.
Rivers build new landforms through deposition.

2. Deposition
Example of Deposition:
Delta
At the mouth of the river, the fast-moving water hits the slower waters of an ocean or lake. As its slows, a river deposits most of its sediments.
The deposits at the river’s mouth build up in a triangular/fan-shaped area called a
delta
. This area is very fertile for farming.
Nile River
Delta
Mediterranean Sea
mouth on Nile
What causes a river to bend?
A river erodes on the outside of the bend/bank, and undergoes deposition on the inside of the bend/bank.
River Erosion and Deposition
Oxbow Lake
As a bend gets bigger, the meander can eventually form a crescent-shaped, cutoff body of water called an
oxbow lake
.
Erosion
Deposition
oxbow lake
How does a river's volume change between its source and mouth?
The volume of water increases.
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