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Dawn Harris

on 7 August 2014

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Transcript of Education

Sputnik I and II
In 1957, the launch of Sputnik I embedded a fear and uncertainty across the country. Sputnik woke up education and put a spotlight on a national problem. The U.S. thought that Russian schools were surpassing the U.S. mostly in the areas of math and science.
educators quickly seized on the launch to push for more government money.

Congress passed the National Defense Education Act in 1958 with 1 billion dollars as a response to those who favored a greater emphasis on higher academic standards.
Results of Sputnik in Schools
-Current content of topics and information was replaced with a curriculum based on the conceptually fundamental ideas and the modes of scientific inquiry and mathematical problem solving.
-Textbooks were replaced with instructional materials that included films, activities, and readings.
-Students learned the structures and procedures of science and mathematics disciplines.
-The House and the Senate reorganized their committee structures to focus on science policy
-Congress created the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA), charging it to create a civilian space program
-Congress tripled funding for the National Science Foundation to improve science education
-Schools began focusing on gifted students, handpicking them for upper-level courses, and they also began receiving matching funds for math, science and foreign languages.

Examples of Traditional Approach to Learning vs. Alternative Approach
Essentialism and Perennialism approaches used
Students grouped by age and sometimes abilitity
Direct instruction/lectures used to teach
Textbooks used
Memorization of facts are crucial to success
Focused on independent work and projects
One curriculum taught to all students regardless of ability or interest

Learning, retention, accumulation of knowledge and skils
Students are grouped by interest or ability in multi-aged classrooms
Hands-on activities and student-led discovery used to teach
Students choose different kinds of classes based on abilities or career paths
A Nation At Risk: The Imperative Need For Educational Reform
In 1983, President Ronald Reagan issued a report which claimed that American schools were failing. More specifically, the report stated that American schools were failing to meet the national need for a competitive workforce. Therefore, a commission was created to assess the teaching and learning quality in all levels of education.
Examples of a Traditional Approach to Learning
Essentialism and Perennialism approaches are used
Students are grouped by age and sometimes abilitiy
Direct instruction/lectures and seatwork utilized
Textbooks used during instruction
Memorization of facts are crucial to success
Focus is on independent work and projects
One curriculum is taugt to all students regardless of ability or interest
Goals 2000
This program expanded the curriculum areas and allowed states to adapt their own standards if it complied.
The National Education Goals were set by the U.S Congress in the 1990’s. It was signed into law in 1994 by President Bill Clinton.
The Act provided resource to states and communities to ensure that all students meet their full potential.
Goals 2000 was first presented to the states as a program in which they could "voluntarily" participate, opting out meant passing up significant federal funds as well
These goals were set to form a Standard-Base Education Reform
Goals were set to state what students should know
This movement called for clear, measurable standards for all students rather than norm references ranking (norm ranking - does the test taker test better or worse than other test takers)

Race to the Top
Launched in 2009 by governors and state commissioners of education from 48 states.

Developed because of lack of standardization across the states.
Developed using:
The best state standards already in existence
The experience of teachers, content experts, states, and leading thinker
Feedback from the public

College and career-readiness standards were developed first and then incorporated into the K-12 standards in the final version of the Common Core we have today.

Two public comment periods from teachers, parents, school administrators, and other citizens concerned with education policy helped shape the final version of the standards.

Common Core - Background
What's Best?
The 1950s to present
Common Core - Purpose
Clear, consistent guidelines for what every student should know and be able to do in math and language arts.

Ready students for freshman-level college course, entry-level careers, as well as workforce training programs.

Develop critical-thinking, problem-solving, and analytical skills students will need to be successful.

Allow teachers to measure student progress throughout the school year and ensure that students are on the pathway to success in their academic careers
Common Core - Teacher Input
Teachers were involved in the development of the Common Core in four ways:

They served on the Work Groups and Feedback Groups for the ELA and math standards.
The National Education Association (NEA), American Federation of Teachers (AFT), National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), and National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) provided feedback on the standards.
Teachers were members of teams states convened to provide regular feedback on drafts of the standards.
Teachers provided input on the Common Core State Standards during the two public comment periods
Common Core - Opposition
Algebra sequence (or grade level) of standards is wrong.

Not enough emphasis on "math facts".

English standards do not contain enough literature.

Too difficult and expensive to implement.

Critics see standards as federal control over education instead of local control.

Fear that instead of being voluntary the standards will become mandatory and politicized.
Fiscal incentive for states to adopt Common Core as a result of "Race to the Top".
Incentives built in to "No Child Left Behind" to adopt Common Core.
"Smarter Balance" and "PARCC" consortia developed assessments with requirements by federal government.
What They Found At The Time
Only one-third of 17-year old students could solve math problems that involved multiple steps.
Only one-fifth could write an acceptable persuasive essay.
Millions of adults were considered illiterate.
SAT scores were dropping.
Back to Basics in Education - Also Known As Traditional Education
"Back to Basics" focuses on the teaching of basic skills in the areas of reading, math, and science by using repetitive drills, tests, and fact-based learning approaches leaving no room for creativity.
The main purpose of a traditional education is to pass on the skills, facts and standards of moral and social conduct that adults deem necessary for the next generation's success.
Historically, traditional education was simply "oral recitation".
Those Who Oppose Traditional Education
Those who consider traditional education a thing of the past now focus on alternative approaches.

Traditional education opposed the constructivist approach to learning in which children learn best when the information taught is a direct representation of problems needing to be solved in their everyday lives.

Race to the Top - Opposition

Race to the Top
Background and Purpose

States were not required to apply, and 9 states chose not to apply.

Grants were awarded in two phases using a 500-point evaluation.
Great Teachers and Leaders (5 Areas - 138 total points)
State Success Factors (3 Areas - 125 total points)
Standards and Assessments (3 Areas - 70 total points)
General Selection Criteria (3 Areas - 55 total points)
Turning Around the Lowest-Achieving Schools (2 Areas - 50 total points)
Data Systems to Support Instruction (3 Areas - 47 total points).
Prioritization of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) for 15 points.


A $4.35 billion contest between states designed to improve education.
Part of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.


Adopt standards and assessments that prepare students to succeed in college and the workplace and to compete in the global economy;

Build data systems that measure student growth and success, and inform teachers and principals about how they can improve instruction;

Recruit, develop, reward, and retain effective teachers and principals, especially where they are needed most;

Turn around our lowest-achieving schools.

Teachers' unions and educators stated that the tests are an inaccurate way to measure teachers, and haven't worked in the past.

Teachers and unions have also stated that federal tax dollars should be shared equally and not given out through a "contest".

Too much federal control on state schools and issues that should be local.

High-stakes testing is unreliable.

The Deliberate Dumbing Down of America
What Next - A proposal was made to improve 5 areas of education
Content - All high school students are now required to take: 4 years of English, 3 years of science, 3 years of mathematics, 3 years of social studies, and 1/2 year computer science. It was also suggested that students work toward proficiency in a language beginning in elementary school.
Standards and Expectations - Four year colleges raise their standards for admissions and standardized test achievements.
Time - Students begin attending school 7 hours a day which will result in a 200 to 220 school year.
Teaching - Salaries for teachers be competitive and performance-based. Teachers also need to demonstrate competence in an academic discipline.
Fiscal Support - The Federal Government needed to help all groups of students such as gifted and talented, socioeconomically disadvantaged, minority and language minority students, and the handicapped.
Discovery Learning
Definition: A more natural way of learning where students encounter a skill or concept or are immersed in the experience before receiving specific input or instruction from a teacher.

Discovery learning takes careful planning, and the teacher acts as a guide leading students to specific skills or concepts.

It can be very open or very structured.
Goals 2000
Background and Purpose

• The National Education Goals were set by the U.S Congress in the 1990’s.
• It was signed into law in 1994 by President Bill Clinton.
• The Act provided resource to states and communities to ensure that all students meet their full potential.
• This program expanded the curriculum areas and allowed states to adapt their own standards if it complied.
• Goals 2000 was first presented to the states as a program in which they could "voluntarily" participate, opting out meant passing up significant federal funds as well
• These goals were set to form a Standard-Base Education Reform
o Goals were set to state what students should know
o This movement called for clear, measurable standards for all students rather than norm references ranking (norm ranking - does the test taker test better or worse than other test takers)

Goals 2000
Acts Developed or Revised from Goals 2000

• National Skill Standards Board and School to work Opportunities Act of 1994
• Adult Education Act
• Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act
• Elementary and Secondary Education Act
• Higher Education Act
• Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
• Job Training Partnership Act
• National and Community Service Act
• National Apprenticeship Act
• Rehabilitation Act
• Social Security Act (Title IV, Part F)

By the Year 2000...

1. All children in America will start school ready to learn.
2. The high school graduation rate will increase to at least 90 percent.
3. Students in grades 4, 8, and 12 will demonstrated competency in core subject areas and every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our nation's modern economy.
4. United States students will be first in the world in mathematics and science achievement.
5. Every adult American will be literate and will possess the knowledge and skills necessary to compete in a global economy and exercise the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
6. U. S. schools will be free of drugs, violence, alcohol and firearms. Schools will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning.
7. U.S. teachers will have access to programs for the continued improvement of their professional skills.
8. Every school will promote partnerships that will increase parental involvement and participation in promoting the social, emotional, and academic growth of children.

Goals 2000
Result of Goals 2000
In 2001, Congress eliminated spending because the nation had not met any of the 8 goals in the year 2000

• Children were ready to learn, healthier and better prepared for preschool
• Higher math proficiency in elementary and middle school
• Slight improvement in middle school reading.

• Teacher quality – 63% of teachers didn’t hold the right degree.
• School safety – A rise in drug use among high school students

• People felt that the federal government were trying to take over the local education system.
• The act was trying to create a national school board that controlled what is taught in the classroom.

No Child Left Behind
Background & Purpose

• In 2002, President George W. Bush signed the NCLB act into law.
• No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) is a federal legislation that enacts the theories of standards-based education reform.
• NCLB ensures that all children have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high-quality education
• It was created to close the achievement gap
• It is based on the belief that setting high standards and establishing measurable goals can improve individual outcomes in education.
• It challenges state academic achievement standards and state academic assessments
• 100% Student proficiency


• NCLB requires states to develop assessments in basic skills to be given to all students in certain grades. This is possible only if those states receive federal funding for schools
• It required schools to have accountability for student achievement and documented by unbiased assessments
• Students were given an annual state wide standardize test.
• Schools performance results in its Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
• Testing was done on sub groups
• Underperforming schools – parents can leave or receive free tutoring
• Highly qualified teacher
• Proven Education Model

No Child Left Behind
Results of NCLB in Schools
• Every child receives an equal education
• Title One support
• Improved student achievement in reading and math
• Non proficient schools receive

• Insufficient funding
• Overemphasis on testing for accountability
• Teaching to the test
• Sub group test results are not improving
• No programs for gifted and talented
• Unrealistic goals - 100% proficent

Pros and Cons of Discovery Learning

-Students are more engaged because they have more ownership over learning
-Students gain the ability to apply knowledge and thinking skills in different settings
-Students learn material through a variety of intelligences
-Students work more collaboratively building social and cooperation skills students learn to
hear, understand and respect perspectives other than their own
-Students are able to think more critically
-Students become more self-aware through reflection and goal setting.


-Teachers have to spend time getting to know each student’s strengths and limitations in order
to provide material within their zone of proximal development
-Students are not the best judges of their own learning needs
-Discovery learning may require instructional tools that are not always available
A Nation at Risk?
Take a few minutes to discuss whether or not we are still a "Nation at Risk."
Full transcript