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Transcript of Manchurian Crisis
Extract from a memorandum of Sir John Simon, Foreign Secretary, to the British Cabinet, 23rd November 1931.
Although Japan has undoubtedly acted in a way contrary to the principles of the Covenant by taking the law into their own hands, she has a real grievance against China. This is not a case in which the armed forces of one country have crossed the frontiers of another in circumstances in which they had no previous right to be on the other’s soil. Japan owns the South Manchurian railway and has been entitled to have a body of Japanese guards upon the strip of land through which the railway runs. Japan’s case is that she was compelled by the failure of China to provide reasonable protection for Japanese lives and property in Manchuria in the face of attacks of Chinese bandits, and of an attack upon the line itself, to move Japanese troops forward and to occupy points in Manchuria which are beyond the line of the railway.
“ManchuriaCrisis”. Source Analysis. Web. N.p. Accessed on May 27th, 2013. https://lenaghan.wikispaces.com/file/view/Manchurian+Crisis+Source+Analysis.docx. Shivali Barot, Linda Lieu, Nayab Rahim, Yang Zhai Why and how did Japan occupy Manchuria and how did the Manchurian Crisis reflect the failure of the League of Nations? Introduction: Japan In the 1930's, there was a Great Depression going on worldwide and Japan wanted to build an empire and they realized the economic potential Manchuria (a region in China) had. Japan wanted Manchuria for 4 main reasons: League of Nations Japan's Tactics Japan claimed that Chinese soldiers had sabotaged the Manchurian railway, and attacked the Chinese army. The Chinese army did not fight back because it knew that the Japanese just wanted an excuse to invade Manchuria. The Japanese government told the Japanese army to withdraw from Manchuria, but they did not. By February 1932, Japan had conquered all of Manchuria. Manchuria was rich in natural resources
Japan was short of living spaces for its population
Japan had political advantages of taking over Manchuria
The Wall St Crash had had a devastating effect on the Japanese economy as the USA and Japan were major trading partners Unemployment at 2.6 million in ‘30
Exports fell by almost 50% from ’29-’31 Manchuria could act as a buffer against the USSR and Communism It belonged to China which was very weak at this time. It was spilt in two by civil war between Nationalists and Communists. Japan already claimed special interests in Manchuria. They ran the South Manchurian Railway and controlled some of the cities along its route Japan was a member of the League's Council and had invaded and conquered Manchuria in 1932. China appealed to the League of Nations to get Manchuria back, but the votes did not agree. It took a whole year for the League to decide that Japan was the aggressor in the Manchurian crisis but Japan withdrew from the League by their own choice. The League couldn't send an army, and it needed America's support to impose sanctions successfully. In the end, the League of Nations was powerless. Sources Q's & A's such as coal and iron ore Key Events Manchuria Crisis Timeline 29, October, 1929
Start of Great depression
Japanese economy collapsed following the Great Depression and Wall Street crash
began building empire to resolve depression 1929 1931 September 18, 1931
The south Manchurian railway owned by the Japanese was bombed and destroyed near Mudken. Japanese puppet government set up in Manchuria
Under the request of China, the League of Nation ordered all Japanese troop to retreat from Manchuria. 1931 Japan ignore the League and announce for further invasion. 1932 China appeal to league of Nation over the Japanese attacks in northeast China. The league dispatched a delegation headed by British Lord Bulwer-Lytton to investigate in China. 1932 Japan defeated in the league of Nation with vote of 42:1, Japan leave League of Nation 1933 February March March The Mukden Incident On September 18th, 1931
there was an explosion on the South Manchurian Railway (just outside the city of Mukden). The Japanese troops detonated a bomb on the rail line and claimed that it was an act of sabotage by the Chinese, but in reality it was a staged event to give the Japanese an excuse to attack and invade Manchuria Why?
The Japanese Imperial Army had the permission to launch actions if the Chinese attacked any Japanese property in the area. Japanese troops responded to the explosion at Mukden by attacking the nearby Chinese Garrison, taking and securing it with ease as the Chinese government had ordered troops in the area not to resist any attacks by Japanese troops in this area. On September 19th, 1931 Japanese troops occupied Mukden, China. The plan was executed when 1st Lieutenant Suemori Komoto of the Independent Garrison Unit of the 29th Infantry Regiment, which guarded the South Manchuria Railway, placed explosives near the tracks, but far enough away to do no real damage. At around 10:20 PM (22:20), September 18, the explosives were detonated. An important part of the scheme was to construct a swimming pool at the Japanese officers' club in Mukden. This "swimming pool" was actually a concrete bunker for two 9.2-inch artillery pieces, which were brought in under complete secrecy. The invasion was a great success. In 1932 the Japanese declared the area to be the new autonomous state of Manchukuo, (renamed Manchuria to Manchukuo) The last Chinese Emperor, Pu Yi, who had been overthrown in 1911, was made the Japanese puppet ruler and the new nation was in fact under the control of the local Japanese army. Railway sabotage site, near Mukden, northeastern China, 18 Sep 1931 Japanese rail officials and reporters at the site of the alleged railroad sabotage, near Mukden, 18 Sep 1931 Japanese troops marching into Mukden, 18 Sep 1931 Japanese flag being hoisted above newly captured Chinese 7th Brigade headquarters, Mukden, Manchuria, 19 Sep 1931 SOURCE A) Extract from Democracies and Dictatorships: Europe and the World 1919-1989 by Allan Todd, Cambridge 2001.
Technically, Manchuria was part of China but, because of the political situation in China, where civil
war had broken out between the Guomindang and the Chinese Communist Party, there was little
stability there. This harmed Japanese trade and economic interests in Manchuria, which had
allowed the Japanese to have a small military force to protect their interests. By 1927, Japan was in
control of most of Manchuria's mines, factories and ports; to protect these, they had a large army
stationed in the Kwantung area of southern Manchuria. At this time, Manchuria was ruled by an
ineffective Chinese warlord (military ruler), but Japan feared the new nationalist government of
China, set up by Jiang Jieshi in 1928, might soon provide effective control over Manchuria.
Section A : Prescribed Subject 1 Peacemaking, Peacekeeping—international relations 1918-1936. Accessed on May 27, 2013.
<http://mulderstudies.wikispaces.com/file/view/WSL+Student+Example+of+a+Paper+1+Source+Paper.pdf> Source A SOURCE B
"The Doormat". This cartoon of 1933 was created by David Low.
The League in Manchuria. Accessed on May 27, 2013.
<http://www.johndclare.net/league_of_nations6.htm> Source C SOURCE C) Extract from US Secretary of State Henry Stimson’s letter to Senator Borah, Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, regarding Japanese aggression in Manchuria. Dated February 23, 1932.
The signatories of the Nine Power Treaty and of the Kellogg-Briand Pact who are not parties to that conflict are not likely to see any reason for modifying the terms of those treaties. To them the real value of the faithful performance of the treaties has been brought sharply home by the perils and losses to which their nationals have been subjected in Shanghai. That is the view of this Government. We see no reason for abandoning the enlightened principles which are embodied in these treaties. No evidence has come to us to indicate that a due compliance with [the Japanese] would have interfered with the adequate protection of the legitimate rights in China of the signatories of those treaties and their nationals.
Section A : Prescribed Subject 1 The Manchurian Crisis 1931. Accessed on May 27, 2013.
(https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B6454eVzYMZvZGQ4NDIxZjMtM2I5Yi00ZDNkLTk3MDMtZTFkNjQwMGU3OGI3/edit?pli=1&hl=en_GB#) SOURCE D
A map of the railways and natural resources of Manchuria from Democracies and Dictatorships: Europe and the World 1919-1989 by Allan Todd, Cambridge 2001. 30 Sep 1931
Lieutenant General Xi Qia, collaborated with the Japanese.
Announced that Jilin Province, China was now independent from China and was under the protection of the Japanese Army. Excerpt from the report of the commission of inquiry of the League of Nations signed at Peiping, September 4th, 1932.
The best method that may be devised by the council for securing the prompt and complete withdrawal of the Japanese troops and police and the full reestablishment of the status quo on is the sending of a neutral commission to Manchuria Source F Source E 19, September, 1931
The Japanese Kwantung Army invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident League of Nations. Commission of Enquiry into the Sino-Japanese Dispute. "Japan-foreighn relations-China." Report of the Commission of Enquiry of the League of Nations : signed at Peiping, September 4, 1932. Taipei, Ch'eng Wen Pub. Co, 1971.Print. 1. a) What is the message of Source A and B?
b) Looking at Source F, analyze the message of this source in regards to the League and Manchuria's reaction to the attack. 21, September SOURCE A
a) Japanese soldiers trampled over a woman and document beside her. The women represents the League and the doc represent the covenant. Meaning: Japan is tramping over the League and covenant.
b) figure bows down to Japan soldiers. Meaning: League is not standing up to Japan.
c) Figure powdering the League's face. The figure represents British foreign secretary John Simon. Meaning: British is not doing the right thing.
This cartoon by the British cartoonist David Low attacks the weakness of the League in the face of Japan. A Japanese soldier walks all over the League, while League officials bow to him and the British foreign secretary John Simon powders the League's nose using a 'face-saving kit'. Source B B A The Chinese Response to the Invasion of Manchuria
•The Chinese appealed to the League of Nations in hoping to retain control over Manchuria.
•In October the League of Nations passed a resolution saying that Japanese troops should withdraw and established a commission which would investigate the claims of both sides.
•The Japanese rejected the League of Nations resolution and insisted on direct negotiations with the Chinese Government. These negotiations failed and the Japanese proceeded, now against some resistance, to take control of the remainder of Manchuria.
•Meanwhile, the League of Nations had been considering the report of the Lytton Commission which had been appointed by the League to make an investigation of the situation in Manchuria. 2. Compare and contrast the views expressed by the sectaries towards Japanese aggression in Manchuria in Sources C and E. Source C Source E Similarities 3. Evaluate source D in its Origin, Purpose, Value, and Limitation. Origin - Democracies and Dictatorships: Europe and the World 1919-1989 by Allan Todd, Cambridge 2001. (Secondary Source)
Purpose - (Political Map with some geographic characteristics) to provide a visual aid of the geographical details (railways and natural resources) of Manchuria. It also provides reasons for why Japan invaded Manchuria. It shows the plans Japan wanted to convey and shows their view point in this place during this time.
Value - It's a secondary source published decades after the crisis, so it has had quite a bit of resources and research done
Limitation - Limited scope (A product of the societies in which they are produced, and therefore offering only a
limited perspective.) 4. Using all the documents and your knowledge, how did the Manchurian Crisis reflect the failure of the League of Nations? Zhangxuliang Seishiro Itagaki PuYi Key People -Born on June, 3, 1901
-General of the Chinese Army during the Mukden Incident(Known as the "Young Marshal)
-His troops were blamed for the booming of the Japanese railway
-Referred as a hero for helping start a incident called xian incident, while being house arrested for 50 years. - Born on January, 21, 1885
-General of the Japanese Imperial Army in WW2
-Became the Chief of the Intellengent Section of the Kwangtung Army in 1931
-Chosen to help in the planning of Mukden Incident
-Military advisor for Puppet State Manchuria, allowing him to access all parts of Manchuria and railways. -7 February 1906 – 17 October 1967
-Last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing Dynasty.
-abdicated on 12 February 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution.
-In 1934, he was declared as the Kangde Emperor of the puppet state of Manchuria with the help of the Japan Empire.
-He ruled until the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945.
-in 1949, after the People's Republic of China was established, Puyi was imprisoned as a war criminal for 10 years and became a member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. -Sir John Simon explicitly defends the Japanese aggression in Manchuria.
-Biased when expressing point of view.
-Provide absurd excuses for Japanese invasion. The textbook source reflects the intention of Japan and why they want to occupy Manchuria! - US Secretary US Secretary of State letter to Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, regarding Japanese aggression in Manchuria.
The countries who signed the Nine-Power Treaty and Kellogg-Briand Pact who aren't part of the conflict aren't likely to modify the terms of the treaties. They see no reason for abandoning the principles of the treaties, and that no reason is there for compliance with Japan that would've interfered with China. Both sources show that the countries they are from show they favour Japan After the Mukden Incident in 1931 China appealed to the League of Nations because they felt threatened and needed external support and thus under Article 11, the League of Nations was obligated to help The League decided to absolve the crisis by arbitration. Japan and China agreed but could not negotiate and so China re-appealed to the League A year later the League decided to send a committee of 5 to China and Japan to evaluate the situation. The committee returned with their complete evaluation and possible solutions to end the crisis The committee concluded that Japan was at fault an suggested that the Japanese troops retreat from Manchuria. 40 Nations voted to reach a final decision. After the hostilities between Japan and China had spread to the Shanghai area early in l932 the Japanese Government asked that the United States extend its good offices for stopping hostilities. Thereupon, the United States made a proposal on February 2 containing the following points:
•cessation of all acts of violence on both sides;
•withdrawal of both Chinese and Japanese combatants in the Shanghai area;
•protection of the International Settlement at Shanghai by the establishment of neutral ones;
In February 1932 Secretary of State Stimson proposed to the British Government that the United States and British Governments issue a joint statement invoking the Nine-Power Treaty and the Kellogg-Briand Pact. "Non-Recognition Policy" The United States Government, in October 20, 1931 to China and Japan, called attention to their obligations under the Kellogg-Briand Pact.
•An agreement to outlaw war signed on August 27, 1928.
•Also known as" the Pact of Paris"
• the pact was one of many international efforts to prevent another World War, but it had little effect in stopping the rising militarism of the 1930s or preventing World War II. Kellogg-Briand Pact Nine-Power Treaty •Signed on February 6, 1922, at Washington, D.C.
•The signers were China and the United States, Great Britain , Japan, Italy, France, Belgium, Portugal, and the Netherlands, who agreed to respect the sovereignty, independence, and territorial and administrative integrity of China. Condemnation of Japanese Aggression •The Commission reported that the military operations of the Japanese in Manchuria could not be regarded as measures of legitimate self-defence; that the regime which the Japanese had set up there disregarded the wishes of the people of Manchuria and was not compatible with the fundamental principles of existing international obligations.
•The League Assembly adopted this report on February 24, 1933, and the Japanese delegation thereupon walked out of the Assembly.
•On March 27, 1933 Japan gave notice of its intention to withdraw from the League. On March 27, 1933 Japan gave notice of its intention to withdraw from the League. The 40 Nations voted and Japan was asked to withdraw from Manchuria. Japan refused to leave Manchuria, instead it left the League and continued its attack. It was mandatory that the League take action against Japan to maintain international peace. However, that was not the case. No economic sanctions were placed on Japan because Japan's main trading partner was the US and the Us was not part of the League. Britain and France did not want to interfere because they did not want to risk their troops, economy, or eastern colonies in danger of attack -The League didn't respond immediately
-The only action it took was sending a commission which was ineffective
-Manchuria couldn't defend itself