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Copy of Human Relations: The Base for educational Leadership
Transcript of Copy of Human Relations: The Base for educational Leadership
The Development of Human Relations Concepts
Conceptualizing Human Relations Theories
Morale in Organizations
Human Relations Theory in Educational Administration
Contemporary Issues in Human Relations
Theory X and Theory Y
X-average human dislikes work and will avoid if possible.
Y-people will exercise self-direction and self control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.
Motivation and behavior are closely related.
Motivation and behavior are connected through needs and wants.
Process - explore how and why motivation generally works.
Content- deal with what specifically motivates people.
Human Relations: The Base for Educational Leadership
by Yeukai Imeh
The quality of work life
#1 reason or leaving jobs - people don't feel recognized or appreciated for their jobs
Quality of work
life refers to how effectively the job environment meets the personal needs and values of employees and consists of :
adequate and far compensation
safe and healthy work conditions
opportunity for continued growth and security
a feeling of belonging
work and total life span
social relevance of work life
Train a worker in several different tasks.
Employees are provided greater work content that require advanced skills.
Employee is more autonomous and responsible for planning, organizing and evaluating work.
Results of low morale
Lack of enthusiasm
Absence of commitment
Growing tardiness and absences
Deterioration in appearance of area
High turnover rate
Job enlargement -
Increases the scope of a job, reduces boredom and fatigue by increasing the number of tasks a worker performs within a given job.
- Design jobs around groups of workers rather than individuals. Leader defines a complete unit of work to a group and lets them determine how to share the tasks.
Herzberg's Motivator hygiene theory- most recognized.
The degree to which an employee feels good about his/her work environment.
Analyze changes in resignations, turnover rates, tardiness, absences, productivity and complaints.
How can we enhance the quality of work life?
The development of human relations concepts
The stage of classical thinking (Pre-1930's)
Focus on efficiency and productivity
The stage of systematic development (1930-1950)
Organizations viewed as social systems. Social needs most important motivator of workers.
The stage of teaching and practice (1950-1960)
Productivity would increase if human relations were attended to. Morale became a research topic.
The stage of refinement ( 1960-1970)
Individual and group behavior contingent on psychological and organizational determinants, internal organizational characteristics and environmental characteristics.
The stage of decline (1970-1980)
Focus on leadership.
The stage of evolving ( 1980-Present)
This period looks critically at the human side of an organization. Looks a quality of work life, collective decision making and responsibility
-The effort a person puts into work depends on the value one places on it.
-Leader informs subordinates on desirable behavior and rewards appropriate behavior.
Social learning models
- It places emphasis on learning from other people.
Study of common human needs reveals that it is unrealistic for leaders to think they can satisfy all needs. Employees are motivated by their own achievements than by needs that would normally have been satisfied.~ Razik & Swanson 2010
Human Relations: The base for Educational leaership
Lack of enthusiasm.
Absence of commitment.
Growing tardiness and absences.
Chronic long face.
Deterioration in appearance of work area.
High turnover rates.
Enhancing the quality of work life
Enhancing the quality of work life cont'd
This is a network of personal and social relations not established or required by by formal authority but arising spontaneously as people associate with one another.
Provides social interactions. Social satisfaction provided by the work environment is limited.
Provides social control. Helps to preserve and maintain the existence, identity and values of the informal organization.
Keeps members informed.
Effects of Informal Organizations
May transmit false information
Cause excessive conformity to group norms
Develop goals that conflict with formal organizations.
Satisfy employee's social needs.
Provide a useful employee communication network.
Provide employees with emotional escape valves.
Complement the formal organization
What did you appreciate most from the reading
on Human Relations ?
The development of human relations concepts cont'd
A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior- Wikipedia
Selection of an appropriate style of leadership is important
This mediates the effects of self-fulfilling prophecy
Pygmalion leadership: Continuous feedback to followers and enthusiasm in worker training. Hence, expectations increase.
Self - fulfilling prophecy
What is a self-fulfilling prophecy?
Common human needs and human motivation
Source: Razik (2010)
Source: Razik & Swnson 2010
What is the number one reason why people leaving jobs?