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Copy of Human Relations: The Base for educational Leadership

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Yeukai Imeh

on 13 July 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Human Relations: The Base for educational Leadership

Topics Covered
The Development of Human Relations Concepts
Conceptualizing Human Relations Theories
Human Nature
Human Motivation
Morale in Organizations
Informal Organizations
Human Relations Theory in Educational Administration
Contemporary Issues in Human Relations
Human Nature
Theory X and Theory Y
X-average human dislikes work and will avoid if possible.
Y-people will exercise self-direction and self control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.
Pygmalion Leadership
Human Motivation
Motivation and behavior are closely related.
Motivation and behavior are connected through needs and wants.
Motivation models:
Process - explore how and why motivation generally works.
Content- deal with what specifically motivates people.
Process Models
Human Relations: The Base for Educational Leadership
by Yeukai Imeh

Content Models
The quality of work life
#1 reason or leaving jobs - people don't feel recognized or appreciated for their jobs

Quality of work
life refers to how effectively the job environment meets the personal needs and values of employees and consists of :
adequate and far compensation
safe and healthy work conditions
opportunity for continued growth and security
a feeling of belonging
employee rights
work and total life span
social relevance of work life
Job rotation
Train a worker in several different tasks.

Job enrichment
Employees are provided greater work content that require advanced skills.
Employee is more autonomous and responsible for planning, organizing and evaluating work.

Results of low morale
Uncooperative attitude
Lack of enthusiasm
Absence of commitment
Fault finding
Growing tardiness and absences
Deterioration in appearance of area
Increasing complaints
High turnover rate
Job enlargement -
Increases the scope of a job, reduces boredom and fatigue by increasing the number of tasks a worker performs within a given job.

Sociotechnical systems
- Design jobs around groups of workers rather than individuals. Leader defines a complete unit of work to a group and lets them determine how to share the tasks.
Herzberg's Motivator hygiene theory- most recognized.
The degree to which an employee feels good about his/her work environment.
Analyze changes in resignations, turnover rates, tardiness, absences, productivity and complaints.
How can we enhance the quality of work life?
The development of human relations concepts
The stage of classical thinking (Pre-1930's)
Focus on efficiency and productivity

The stage of systematic development (1930-1950)
Organizations viewed as social systems. Social needs most important motivator of workers.

The stage of teaching and practice (1950-1960)
Productivity would increase if human relations were attended to. Morale became a research topic.

The stage of refinement ( 1960-1970)
Individual and group behavior contingent on psychological and organizational determinants, internal organizational characteristics and environmental characteristics.

The stage of decline (1970-1980)
Focus on leadership.

The stage of evolving ( 1980-Present)
This period looks critically at the human side of an organization. Looks a quality of work life, collective decision making and responsibility
Expectancy models
-The effort a person puts into work depends on the value one places on it.
Behaviorist models
-Leader informs subordinates on desirable behavior and rewards appropriate behavior.
Social learning models
- It places emphasis on learning from other people.
Study of common human needs reveals that it is unrealistic for leaders to think they can satisfy all needs. Employees are motivated by their own achievements than by needs that would normally have been satisfied.~ Razik & Swanson 2010
Human Relations: The base for Educational leaership
Maintaining Motivation
Activity 5.1
Uncooperative attitude.
Lack of enthusiasm.
Absence of commitment.
Fault finding.
Growing tardiness and absences.
Chronic long face.
Deterioration in appearance of work area.
Increasing complaints.
High turnover rates.
Enhancing the quality of work life
Enhancing the quality of work life cont'd
Informal organizations
This is a network of personal and social relations not established or required by by formal authority but arising spontaneously as people associate with one another.

Provides social interactions. Social satisfaction provided by the work environment is limited.
Provides social control. Helps to preserve and maintain the existence, identity and values of the informal organization.
Keeps members informed.
Effects of Informal Organizations

May transmit false information
Resist changes
Cause excessive conformity to group norms
Develop goals that conflict with formal organizations.

Satisfy employee's social needs.
Provide a useful employee communication network.
Provide employees with emotional escape valves.
Complement the formal organization
Community Relationships
Activity 5.2
What did you appreciate most from the reading
on Human Relations ?
The development of human relations concepts cont'd
A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior- Wikipedia

Selection of an appropriate style of leadership is important
This mediates the effects of self-fulfilling prophecy
Pygmalion leadership: Continuous feedback to followers and enthusiasm in worker training. Hence, expectations increase.
Self - fulfilling prophecy
What is a self-fulfilling prophecy?
The end
Common human needs and human motivation
Source: Razik (2010)
Source: Razik & Swnson 2010
Leadership Consideration
What is the number one reason why people leaving jobs?
Full transcript