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Lecture #5: Monotheism

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Jeff Voth

on 26 September 2017

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Transcript of Lecture #5: Monotheism

Monotheism-- from the Greek
"only", and
Belief in 1) one supreme God 2) The Creator and Lord of the world 3) the eternal Spirit 4) the All-powerful, All-wise, and All-good 5) the Rewarder of good and Punisher of evil 6) the Source of man's happiness.
as opposed to Polytheism, which is belief in more than one god.
as opposed to Atheism, which is disbelief in any deity whatsoever.
Christianity & The 8 Questions
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms:

_ __________, _ __________ ___________ __ ___ ______, _____ ____ __ ________ __ _ _____ ___ __ _ ___ __ presuppositions (assumptions which may be true, partially true or entirely false) that we hold (consciously or subconsciously, consistently or inconsistently) about the basic constitution of reality and that provides the foundation on which we live and move and have our being. (Sire, The Universe Next Door, loc 133)
Quiz 5
Question #7: What is the m_ _ _ _ _ _ of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _?

History is linear, a meaningful sequence of events leading to the fulfillment of God's purposes for humanity as expressed in the person of Jesus Christ; and fulfilled in His Perfect life, death, Resurrection and Restoration of Heaven and Earth (Isaiah 65, Rev. 21 & 22)
Christianity & the 8 questions (cont.)
Question #5: Why is it p_ _ _ _ _ _ _ to _ _ _ _ anything at all?
Question #6: How do we k_ _ _ what is _ _ _ _ _ and _ _ _ _ _?

Human beings can know both the world around them and God Himself because God has built into them the capacity to do so and because He takes an active role in communicating with them through the person Jesus Christ as revealed in the Bible and the power of His "Holy Spirit" (John 16:5-16)
Christianity & the 8 Questions (cont.)
Worldview Paper and Rubric
Question #1: What is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , the r_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _?
"Jesus Christ is really real. He is the FULL expression of the Deity in bodily form (Col. 1:15-20)

Question #2: What is the nature of e_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _?
"External reality is the cosmos God/
ex nihilo
with a
of c
ause and effect in an open system
(Gen. 1:1-2 John 1: 1-4)

Question #3: What is a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _?
"Human beings are created in the image of God and thus possess personality, self-transcendence, intelligence, morality, gregariousness and creativity and Jesus Christ is the supreme example of this. He is the second Adam. (Rom. 5: 12-21)
Question #4: What happens to a _ _ _ _ _ _ at _ _ _ _ _?
"What happens at death is what Jesus said would happen at death. Those who trust in Him will be with Him in His Father's house (John 14: 1-4, 2 Cor. 5:8)
Part 1: Monotheism
(see syllabus yo)
Lecture #5: Monotheism
Part 1: Christianity, Judaism & Islam
Part 2: Ethics & Universal Moral Law

(1) This is the book of the generations of Adam. When God created man, he made him in the likeness of God. (2) Male and female he created them, and he blessed them and named them Man when they were created. (3) When Adam had lived 130 years, he fathered a son in his own likeness, after his image, and named him Seth. (4) The days of Adam after he fathered Seth were 800 years; and he had other sons and daughters. (5) Thus all the days that Adam lived were 930 years, and he died. (6) When Seth had lived 105 years, he fathered Enosh. (7) Seth lived after he fathered Enosh 807 years and had other sons and daughters. (8) Thus all the days of Seth were 912 years, and he died. (9) When Enosh had lived 90 years, he fathered Kenan. (10) Enosh lived after he fathered Kenan 815 years and had other sons and daughters. (11) Thus all the days of Enosh were 905 years, and he died. (12) When Kenan had lived 70 years, he fathered Mahalalel. (13) Kenan lived after he fathered Mahalalel 840 years and had other sons and daughters. (14) Thus all the days of Kenan were 910 years, and he died. (15) When Mahalalel had lived 65 years, he fathered Jared. (16) Mahalalel lived after he fathered Jared 830 years and had other sons and daughters. (17) Thus all the days of Mahalalel were 895 years, and he died. (18) When Jared had lived 162 years he fathered Enoch. (19) Jared lived after he fathered Enoch 800 years and had other sons and daughters. (20) Thus all the days of Jared were 962 years, and he died. (21) When Enoch had lived 65 years, he fathered Methuselah. (22) Enoch walked with God after he fathered Methuselah 300 years and had other sons and daughters. (23) Thus all the days of Enoch were 365 years. (24) Enoch walked with God, and he was not, for God took him. (25) When Methuselah had lived 187 years, he fathered Lamech. (26) Methuselah lived after he fathered Lamech 782 years and had other sons and daughters. (27) Thus all the days of Methuselah were 969 years, and he died. (28) When Lamech had lived 182 years, he fathered a son (29) and called his name Noah, saying, “Out of the ground that the Lord has cursed, this one shall bring us relief from our work and from the painful toil of our hands.” (30) Lamech lived after he fathered Noah 595 years and had other sons and daughters. (31) Thus all the days of Lamech were 777 years, and he died. (32 After Noah was 500 years old, Noah fathered Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
Genesis 5
21 Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and the sea was no more. 2 And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. 3 And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, “Behold, the dwelling place of God is with man. He will dwell with them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them as their God. 4 He will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain anymore, for the former things have passed away.”
5 And he who was seated on the throne said, “Behold, I am making all things new.” Also he said, “Write this down, for these words are trustworthy and true.” 6 And he said to me, “It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. To the thirsty I will give from the spring of the water of life without payment. 7 The one who conquers will have this heritage, and I will be his God and he will be my son.
Revelation 21 & 22
Genesis 11:10-32= Shem-Abram/Abraham
Genesis 16= Hagar & Ishmael (Father of the Arabs)
Genesis 21=Isaac born (promise) & ishmael sent away
Exodus 2=Moses born
The 3 Great Monotheistic religions are represented here. Can you find them?
15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation.
16 For by[a] him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities —all things were created through him and for him.
17 And he is before all things, and in him all things hold together.
18 And he is the head of the body, the church. He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in everything he might be preeminent.
19 For in him all the fullness of God was pleased to dwell,
20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, making peace by the blood of his cross.
1 In the beginning was the Word,
and the Word was with God, and
the Word was God.
2 He was in
the beginning with God.
3 All things were made through him,
and without him was not any
thing made that was made.
1 “Let not your hearts be troubled. Believe in God; believe also in me.
2 In my Father's house are many rooms. If it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you?
3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and will take you to myself, that where I am you may be also.
4 And you know the way to where I am going.”
8 Yes, we are of good courage, and we would rather be away from the body and at home with the Lord.
5 “But now I go away to Him who sent Me, and none of you asks Me, ‘Where are You going?’
6 But because I have said these things to you, sorrow has filled your heart.
7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth. It is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you; but if I depart, I will send Him to you.
8 And when He has come, He will convict the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:
9 of sin, because they do not believe in Me;
10 of righteousness, because I go to My Father and you see Me no more;
11 of judgment, because the ruler of this world is judged.

12 “I still have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now.
13 However, when He, the Spirit of truth, has come, He will guide you into all truth; for He will not speak on His own authority, but whatever He hears He will speak; and He will tell you things to come.
14 He will glorify Me, for He will take of what is Mine and declare it to you.
15 All things that the Father has are Mine. Therefore I said that He will take of Mine and declare it to you.
Isaiah 65:17
“For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth, and the former things shall not be remembered or come into mind.18 But be glad and rejoice forever in that which I create; for behold, I create Jerusalem to be a joy, and her people to be a gladness.19 I will rejoice in Jerusalem and be glad in my people; no more shall be heard in it the sound of weeping and the cry of distress. 20 No more shall there be in it an infant who lives but a few days, or an old man who does not fill out his days, for the young man shall die a hundred years old, and the sinner a hundred years old shall be accursed. 21 They shall build houses and inhabit them; they shall plant vineyards and eat their fruit.
22 They shall not build and another inhabit; they shall not plant and another eat; for like the days of a tree shall the days of my people be, and my chosen shall long enjoy[c] the work of their hands. 23 They shall not labor in vain or bear children for calamity, for they shall be the offspring of the blessed of the Lord, and their descendants with them. 24 Before they call I will answer; while they are yet speaking I will hear. 25 The wolf and the lamb shall graze together; the lion shall eat straw like the ox, and dust shall be the serpent's food. They shall not hurt or destroy in all my holy mountain,” says the Lord.
22:12 “Behold, I am coming soon, bringing my recompense with me, to repay each one for what he has done. 13 I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.”
Bring it...NOW!!
Matt. 6:10
9 Pray then like this: “Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name. 10 Your kingdom come, your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven.
Christianity and Question #8
Question #8- What personal, life-orienting core commitments are consistent with this world view?

Christians seek first the kingdom of God, that is to glorify God and enjoy Him forever, by following Jesus as His bondservants (Rom. 1:1, 2 Peter 1, Luke 9:23)
Exodus 21:1-6
21 “Now these are the rules that you shall set before them. 2 When you buy a Hebrew slave,[a] he shall serve six years, and in the seventh he shall go out free, for nothing. 3 If he comes in single, he shall go out single; if he comes in married, then his wife shall go out with him. 4 If his master gives him a wife and she bears him sons or daughters, the wife and her children shall be her master's, and he shall go out alone. 5 But if the slave plainly says, ‘I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free,’ 6 then his master shall bring him to God, and he shall bring him to the door or the doorpost. And his master shall bore his ear through with an awl, and he shall be his slave forever.
Judaism & the 8 Questions
Compare and Contrast
Question #1- What is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _--the r_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _?
The Shema Israel
Deut. 6:4
"Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God
the Lord is one"
None of this
Position Regarding Jesus
"The spread of Christianity with its doctrine of the divinity of its founder called forth a number of expressions
from the Jewish sages touching the subject of the absolute unity of God; thus a commentary on the first commandment
reads, “A king of flesh and blood has a father and a brother, but God says, “With me it is not so; I am the first, because I have no father, and “I am the last”, because I have no brother; and besides me, there is no God, because I have no son.” (Jewish Encyclopedia)
Judaism and Jesus
Compare and Contrast
Jews do not believe that Jesus was the messiah
Jews do not believe that he fulfilled the mission of the messiah as it is described in the following biblical passages: Psalm 22 (1000 BC), Isaiah 52:13-53:12 (700 BC) (for a list of 70+ more Messianic prophesies, see http://clarifyingchristianity.com/m_prophecies.shtml)
Many Jews believe that a Jew born about a century later came far close to fulfilling the messianic ideal than Jesus did. His name was Shimeon ben Kosiba, known as Bar Kokhba (son of a star), and he was a charismatic, brilliant, but brutal warlord. Celebrated scholar Rabbi Akiba, believed that Bar Kokhba was in fact the messiah.
Bar Kokhba fought a war against the Roman Empire (132 CE), catching the Tenth Legion by surprise and retaking Jerusalem. He resumed sacrifices at the site of the Temple and made plans to rebuild the Temple.
He established a provisional government and began to issue coins in its name. This is what the Jewish people were looking for in a messiah. Ultimately, however, Emperor Hadrian's army crushed the revolt and killed Bar Kokhba (135 CE).
After his death (and him staying dead) it was acknowledged that he was not the messiah.
Bar Kokhba
However, the sentiment expressed in this quote states the orthodox Jewish position on Jesus...
“Throughout Jewish history, there have been many people who have
claimed to be the mashiach, or whose followers have claimed that they were the mashiach: Shimeon Bar Kokhba, Shabbatai Tzvi, Jesus, and many others too numerous to name. Leo Rosten reports some very entertaining accounts under the entry for meshiekh in The New Joys of Yiddish. But all of these people died without fulfilling the mission of the mashiach; therefore, none of them were the mashiach. The mashiach and the Olam Ha-Ba lie in the future, not in the past.
Judaism & the 8 Questions
Question #4- What happens to a _ _ _ _ _ _ at _ _ _ _ _?

Sins that were not cleansed prior to death are removed by a process described as Sheol or

Contrary to the Greek and Christian view of eternal damnation in Hades or Hell, the “punishment” of Sheol, as described in the Jewish Scriptures, is temporary.This is why King David said, “You will not abandon my soul to Sheol; nor will You allow Your Holy One to undergo decay” (Psalm 16:10).

Additionally, the prophet Samuel says, “He [the Lord] brings down to Sheol and brings up again" (I Samuel 2: 6), and the prophet Jonah described it in the following way, “I called out of my affliction to the LORD, and He answered me; out of the depth of Sheol cried I, and you heard my voice” (Jonah 2:3).

Judaism’s view of hell more closely resembles purgatory. However, the pain the soul experiences is not physical. It has been compared to psychological anguish, shame and healing upon reviewing the history of one’s life in a body, and how it wasted opportunities to serve God.
Question #4 Compare & Contrast
Jewish tradition holds that the Torah contains 613 mitzvot - 248 positive commandments (mitzvot aseh or commands to perform certain actions) and 365 negative commandments (mitzvot lo ta'aseh or commands to abstain from certain actions). An example of a positive mitzvah is to give charity. An example of a negative mitzvah is not to steal.

“After we die we are judged by God, since He is the only true judge who knows our actions as well as our motives. Our place in heaven is determined by a merit system based on God’s accounting of all our actions and motives. God also knows if we have repented for transgressions committed during our lifetime and takes this into account.” Rabbi Bentzion Kravitz, Jews for Judaism
Question #7: Compare & Contrast
Question #7- What is the m_ _ _ _ _ _ of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _?

Jews believe that they are the Chosen People, because they were chosen by God to make Him known to the world.

He (God) chose Abraham, to spread the concept of monotheism, therefore, he and his descendants were responsible for sharing His word of God with others.

The Jewish people are called to be a “light to the nations” (Isaiah 42:6) by doing good in the world through gemilut hasidim (acts of loving kindness) and tikkun olam (repairing the world).

There are three primary movements in Judaism – and they define the idea of being the Chosen People in the following ways: 1.) Reform Judaism= a metaphor for the choices we make in our lives to live Jewishly, 2.) Conservative Judaism= a unique heritage wherein Jews enter into a relationship with God and effect change in the world by helping create a compassionate society, and 3.) Orthodox Judaism= a spiritual calling that ties Jews to God through the Torah and mizvot (613 commandments) which Jews have been commanded to make a part of their lives.

The Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides (1138-1204) compiled a list of 13 Foundations of Judaism (see http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/rambam13.asp for a listing of them)
June 5-10, 1967
The Six
Days War
An Overview of Islam
Islam (1.2 billion adherents), Christianity (1.9 billion adherents) and Judaism (14 million adherents)
Like Christianity and Judaism, Islam traces its roots back to the patriarch Abraham (Gen. 12).
The word "Islam" means "surrender" or "submission" and it comes from the root word "salem" which means "surrender." A Muslim (or Moslem - which means one who surrenders to God).
The Arabic word for god is "allah" which has become a kind of name of God in Islam.
Second only to the Islamic belief in the unity/oneness of God is the supremacy of Muhammad as Allah's prophet.
Islam acknowledges that several prophets preceded Muhammad. The major ones are Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, and Jesus.
These prophets gave revelations from God which were written as scriptures; mainly, the Old and New Testaments. These predecessors to Muhammad are considered great prophets who spoke for God to specific people and whose message was meant for that time.
Jesus, according to Islam, was simply one of many prophets. Therefore, Muslims deny the Christian doctrine of the deity of Jesus, the need for His atoning sacrifice (4:157-158), the Trinity (5:73), and much more.
Allah in Arabic
Overview of Islam (cont.)
The Koran (or Qur'an, which means "the reading" in Arabic) is the sacred book of Islam and is broken up into 114 chapters called Suras which cover the subjects of ethics, history, law, and theology. It believed to be the direct, literal word of God.
The Qur'an (also spelled Quran and Koran) was delivered by the angel Gabriel (also known as the Holy Spirit) to Muhammad (570 A.D.-632 A.D.) over a 23-year period after Muhammad's initial encounter with Gabriel in a cave when he was 40 years old.
In addition to the Qur'an is the Hadith. It is another source of authority in Islam, though it is second to the Qur'an. The Hadith is a collection of the sayings and deeds of Muhammad as recorded by his companions.
The most important place of worship for the Muslim is the Mosque which is always pointed towards Mecca which is the birthplace of Muhammad and is located in Saudi Arabia. All Muslims must face Mecca during their times of prayer because in Mecca there is the Ka'aba, a cube structure allegedly built by Abraham which contains a sacred stone.
Muslims hope for shari'ah, the complete rule of Islamic law in the world. To this end, Muslims are seeking more converts, attacking other religious systems both by the sword and by word, moving into every nation, and seeking political power wherever they can achieve it. Islam is a growing and aggressive religion that seeks to submit everyone on the planet to its rule.
Islam and the 8 Questions
Question #1- What is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _--the r_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _?

Islam teaches that Allah is the one and only deity in all existence (Qur'an 5:73; 112:1-4). He is supreme, all knowing (40:20), ever-present, different from all of creation (3:191), and in complete control of all things. According to Islam, Allah created the universe in six days (2:29; 25:61-62) and all that is in it continues to exist by his permission and will. Allah is non-Trinitarian (5:73), but he is absolute, and eternal.

“They have certainly disbelieved who say, " Allah is the third of three." And there is no god except one God. And if they do not desist from what they are saying, there will surely afflict the disbelievers among them a painful punishment.” Qur’an 5:73

“1 Say, "He is Allah , [who is] One, 2 Allah , the Eternal Refuge, 3 He neither begets nor is born, 4 Nor is there to Him any equivalent." Qur’an 112:1-4

Question #3- What is a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _?

“And certainly did We create man from an extract of clay.” Qur’an, 23:12
Islam and the 8 Questions
Question #4- What happens to a _ _ _ _ _ _ at _ _ _ _ _?

Allah will judge all people on the day of judgment (3:30; 35:33-37; 99:6-8).
If your good deeds exceed your bad deeds, and you believe in Allah, and sincerely repent of sins, you may go to heaven (3:135; 7:8-9; 21:47; 49:14; 66:8-9).
There is an eternal hell for those who are not Muslims, not practicing Islam, and not of the truth faith (3:77).
Heaven (Paradise), a Garden (79:41) of bliss and fruit (69:21-24), has rivers (3:198), with maidens pure and holy (4:57), and carpets and cushions, (88:8-16).
There will be a physical resurrection of all people (19:93-95) on the day of judgment (3:77; 15:25; 16:38;42:29).
Question #7
What is the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _?

1- To assure that Allah rules the world (His kingdom come and his will be done?)

2- Jihad= “...has been interpreted by Muslims in different ways. The Muslim sect of the Kharijites has elevated Jihad to one of the Five Pillars of Islam -- making it Six Pillars. This kind of belief is seen in the extremist Muslim groups we call terrorists. They use the concept of Jihad as a justification for killing anyone who isn't a Muslim. However, most Muslims disagree with this extremist position of some Muslims and advocate peace. These Muslims view Jihad as a spiritual struggle against evil in a metaphorical sense.1For the most part, there is the Greater and Lesser Jihad. The Greater Jihad is the internal spiritual struggle of the Muslim toward submission to Allah. The Lesser Jihad is Holy War against non- Muslims based on principle of belief. It is this latter that has caused the most concern among Westerners. Is that concern warranted? Many think so.” Matt Slick, http://carm.org/religious-movements/islam/jihad-holy-struggle-or-holy-war
Islam: Compare/Contrast
Question #8- What p_ _ _ _ _ _ _, life-orienting _ _ _ _ c_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ are consistent with this world view?

The Five Pillars of Islam are core beliefs that shape Muslim thought, deed, and society. A Muslim who fulfills the Five Pillars of Islam, remains in the faith of Islam, and sincerely repents of his sins, will make it to Jannah (paradise). If he performs the Five Pillars but does not remain in the faith, he will not be saved. The Five Pillars are: 1.) Shahada- To proclaim that "There is no true God except Allah and
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.", 2.) Prayer, 3.) Fasting, 4.) Alms giving, and 5.) Pilgrimage. (http://carm.org/five-pillars-of-islam)

An excellent site for more substantive information about Islam is
Book Mini Test #1
Definition of a Worldview

The 8 Questions
15 Minutes
No Cheating
Lecture #4-Part 2
Ethics and Moral Law
(In a "Big 3" Monotheistic context)
Definition= a set of principles of right conduct. A theory or system of moral values. The rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession, religious group, etc.
Inherent knowledge= Each of the Big 3 believe in an inherent knowledge of right and wrong, good and evil, they just disagree on some of the aspects as to how to respond to that knowledge.
Informed by a Holy Book= Christianity (The entire 66 books of the Bible, Catholics add 11 books between the testaments), Judaism (1.) The Pentateuch or Torah, which contains the 613 mitzvot. They also revere two other parts of the Hebrew Bible consist of the "Books of the Prophets" (Nevi'im) and the "Writings" (Ketuvim) of the ancient sages. Together, Jews refer to this collection of Holy books as TaNaKh - an acronym based on the initial letters of each of the three parts of the Hebrew Bible.) Islam (The Qur’an, or Koran, The Hadith (sayings of Mohammed, that were first memorized and then written down by his prophets throughout history).
Imparted by...= Christianity (Knowledge of Moral Law and inability to live up to it lead to following the way of Jesus and submitting Him as Savior and Lord. One will live an ethical life when he follows Jesus’ example. He will make mistakes, but is graciously restored. See process explained in Romans 8), Judaism (Knowledge of Moral Law are inherently present in man, but a life patterned after the Torah must be strictly adhered to, if one desires to be blessed in this life. Blessing and shalom in this life are vitally important and living a good and ethical life here bring that about.), Islam (Knowledge of Moral Law is inherently present, but man cannot live up to it’s standard without converting to the ways of Isalm as described in the Qur’ab and adhered to by rigidly living out the code described in the 5/6 Pillars. When one does this he may have hope of a good afterlife.)
Which one of these brings you the most hope?
Is the most livable?
WV Notes Entry #2
Break into WV groups
Accomplish the following...

Using the 8 worldview questions as a guide create your own world. You cannot use the names of any currently existing religious systems or deities.
Worldview of the Week
Only a Man by Johnny Lang
Quiz #4- The Definition
__ ______________, ___ _______________ ________________ _____ ______ _
Quiz #4- The Definition
___ _____________, __ __________ __________ ___ _____ _______, _______ ______ ____ _________ ___ ___ _______ ____ ___ ____ ____ ___ presuppositions (assumptions which may be true, partially true, or entirely false) that we hold (consciously or subconsciously, consistently or inconsistently) about the basic constitution of reality and that provides the foundation on which we live and move and have our being.” (Sire, The Universe Next Door, loc 133)
A worldview is. . .
Worldview Group #1
Names of Group Members and Z#'s
Invent a World and Name It
Answer Question 1
in the Context of Your World: What is prime reality—the really real?
Quiz 4
Lecture 5 Quiz
Book Title: ________ ________
Book Author: _____ ______
Jesus is ________, _________, or ________
Dr. Voth's Favorite Song is _______ _____
Jesus is the thesis
Jesus is the thesis
Full transcript