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Diseases & Disorders
Transcript of Diseases & Disorders
What is an Infectious Diseases?
Infectious Disease: any disease that is caused by an agent that can pass from one living thing to another.
How Infections Spread
Can spread directly or indirectly from person to person, animal to person, insect to person, or even from food or drink to a person
Bacteria vs. Virus
Bacteria are very small, single-celled organisms that are found almost everywhere.
Your Body's Defense: Immune System
The immune system is made up of organs and special cells that fight infections.
From Person to Person
sharing food or drink
handling of other objects
Infections can spread through epidemics.
Epidemic is a widespread occurrence of a disease.
Although many types of bacteria can cause infections, you benefit from bacteria, too.
A virus is an extremely small particle that consists of an outer shell and genetic material.
Unlike bacteria, viruses cannot reproduce by themselves.
An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria.
Skin: your skin is actually made of many layers of cells.
Hairs: the hair around your eyes and nose traps germs and keeps them from getting into your body.
Tears: your eyes produce tears that wash germs out of your eyes
Mucus: not only traps germs but also contains chemical defenses to attack and destroy the germs
Saliva and Stomach Acid: most of the germs that enter your mouth and stomach are killed by saliva and stomach acid
Your Body's Defense: Immune System
Macrophages engulf the cells that have been infected by viruses
Macrophages signal cells called T cells and cells called B cells
The B cells produce antibodies, which are substances that destroy germs. The T cells help destroy the virus-infected cells.
Keep Your Immune System Strong
The healthier your immune system is, the less you will get sick.
Common Bacterial Infections
Strep Throat: an infection caused by a bacterium called streptococcus.
can be spread from person to person through the sharing of food and drink or touching
Antibiotics will treat this bacteria infection
Tuberculosis: an infection caused by a very slow-growing organisms from a family of bacteria called mycobacteria
Tuberculosis kills 3 million people a year
It is spread by coughing
Sinus Infections: sinuses are open areas in your skull that are located behind your face and above your mouth
these areas can fill with mucus and become infected with bacteria
Common Viral Infections
The Common Cold: the common cold is actually caused by many different viruses.
the average person catches about two colds a year
can spread from touch, sneezing, or coughing
Influenza: "the flu" is actually a virus from one of the two groups of viruses called influenza A and influenza B.
Can be spread by touching, sneezing, or coughing, or even sharing food or drink.
Vaccine: a substance that is used to keep a person from getting a disease.
Mononucleosis: is caused by a virus called Epstein-Barr virus or EBV.
called the "kissing disease"
causes swollen glands in the neck, fever, feeling tired, and sore throat
Sexually Transmitted Infections
HIV & AIDS
AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Caused by HIV
a viral disease that destroys the body's immune system
HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV came from Africa, where the green monkey was infected Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
The first known case of AIDS outside of Africa was reported in 1981 in California
HIV & AIDS
HIV destroys your body's ability to fight infection
Once patients develop full blown AIDS, their lifespan is usually shortened.
nervous system: mental problems, loss of vision, and paralysis
digestive system: frequent diarrhea and intestinal infections
lungs: can leave the body open to pneumonia
skin: suffer a skin cancer called sarcoma
Preventing the Spread
of Infectious Diseases
Wash your hands and bathe regularly
Avoid contact with people who may be sick
Do not eat or drink after others
Eat a balanced diet
Disease and Disease Prevention
Disease: any harmful change in the state of health of your body or mind
Noninfectious disease is a disease that is not caused by a virus or a living organism
Circulatory system diseases
Preventing and Living with Noninfectious Diseases
Some diseases can be prevented.
For example type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and liver diseases, as well as some diseases caused by injuries
Most noninfectious diseases cannot be cured, but they can be treated.
For example, allergies and asthma can be treated with medicine and some diseases can be controlled or slowed down with treatment as well.
To treat a disease is to provide medical care to someone who has that disease.
A hereditary disease is a disease caused by defective genes inherited by a child from one or both parents
risk factor: a characteristic or behavior that raises a person's chances of getting a noninfectious disease.
Genes control the activities of cells and determine a person's physical characteristics.
Genes are passed down from parents to their offspring
Some hereditary diseases, such as sickle cell disease, are caused by changes to one gene. Other hereditary diseases, such as breast cancer and colon cancer, may involve changes to more than one gene. And down syndrome results when a person is born with part or all of an extra chromosome.
Metabolic and Nutritional Diseases
Metabolism is the process by which the body converts the energy in food into energy the body can use.
Some metabolic problems happen before birth and some happen after.
Problems may be hereditary, related to nutrition and diet, or have some other cause.
Preventing Nutritional Diseases is all about having a nutritious diet.
An improper or unhealthy diet may lead to malnutrition, which is poor nourishment caused by a lack of nutrients.
Cancer is a disease in which cells grow uncontrollably and invade and destroy healthy tissues.
When cancer occurs, there has been a change in DNA instructions in a cell
The cells growth becomes abnormal, it then divides and forms more abnormal cells.
As these cells grow, they form tumors.
A tumor is a mass of abnormal cells
A tumor may be malignant or benign.
malignant tumors are cancerous and can be life threatening. They spread to other parts of the body and invade other organs and tissues.
benign tumors are not cancerous and are usually not life threatening.
Common Types of Cancer
Cancer can affect any tissue or organ of the body.
Some cancers, such as small-cell lung cancer, grow and spread very quickly. Other cancer, such as some skin cancers, grow more slowly.
Colon and Rectal Cancer
Reproductive Organ Cancer
Diagnosing and Treating Cancer
Cancer is often found when a person describes one or more of the cancer warning signs to a doctor.
The doctor usually orders a biopsy
a biopsy is a sample of tissue that is removed from the patient and that is sent to a specialist to see if cancer cells are present.
Surgery: doctors remove cancer cells from the body. This method works best on cancer that has not spread to other parts of the body.
Chemotherapy: Chemicals are used to destroy cancer cells. used to fight cancers that have spread.
Radiation: high-energy rays from radioactive materials are used to shrink or kill cancer cells. This method is usually used in combination with surgery and chemotherapy.
Some cancer cannot be prevented, it may be caused by hereditary factors, or it may be related to aging or gender.
However, there are ways to reduce your risk of getting cancer.
Making healthy choices
Eating a nutritious diet
Not smoking or using alcohol
You cannot prevent all cancer, but the earlier most cancers are detected, the better the chances that they can be treated successfully.
Allergies and Autoimmune Disease
An allergy is an overreaction of the immune system to something in the environment that is harmless to most people.
Something that causes an allergy is called an allergen.
Almost anything can be an allergen, as your immune systems protects your body by responding to invading proteins or other substances
An autoimmune disease is a disease in which a person's immune system attacks certain cells, tissues, or organs of the body.
This is what happens when your immune system starts to attack the body cells that is it supposed to protect: your body reacts as if it is allergic to itself.