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# The Properties of Waves

A project for physics describing transmission, reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference.
by

## Tiffany Graff

on 17 March 2014

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#### Transcript of The Properties of Waves

Everything You Need to Know About

The Properties of Waves
By: Tiffany Graff
What is a Wave?
A wave is a transfer of energy over a distance, in the form of disturbance. All waves begin with a vibration.
It is important to note that when energy is transferred the particles of the medium are NOT transferred along with the energy; the particles stay in one place.
Wave Properties
1. Transmission
2. Reflection
3. Refraction
4. Diffraction
5. Interference
Transmission
Reflection
Refraction
Diffraction
Interference
: the motion of a wave through a medium.
: the change of direction of a wave after bouncing off a substance.
: the bending effect on a wave direction, or the change of direction of a wave, when the wave enters a different medium at an angle.
: the bending effect of a wave's direction, or the change of direction, of wave as it passes by an obstacle or through an opening.
During Transmission
Wavelength- doesn't change
Frequency- doesn't change
Speed- doesn't change
During Reflection
Wavelength- doesn't change
Frequency- doesn't change
Speed- doesn't change
During Refraction
Wavelength- changes
Frequency- doesn't change
Speed- changes
During Diffraction
Wavelength- doesn't change
Frequency- doesn't change
Speed- doesn't change
During Interference
Wavelength- changes
Frequency- doesn't change
Speed- doesn't change
Types of Waves/Vibrations
Transverse / Angular Waves
The direction of motion isn't in line with the direction of vibration (at an angle to each other)
eg. pendulum, swing, water and light waves
Longitudinal / Linear Waves
The direction of motion is in line with the direction of vibration
eg. mass on the end of a spring, sound waves
The Universal Wave Equation

is a relationship between the speed, frequency, and wavelength of a wave
applies to all waves
v= speed (m/s)
f= frequency (Hz)
lambda (to the right of the f)= wavelength (m)
What changes the speed of a wave?
Only a change in medium will change the speed of a wave.
Changing the frequency or wavelength will have no impact on speed.

There are 2 types of reflection:
Free-end reflection
Fixed-end reflection
Fixed-End Reflection: a reflection where the pulse is inverted (crest reflects back as a trough); reflection off a more dense (hard) substance
Free-End Reflection: a reflection where the pulse is not inverted (crest reflects back as a crest); reflection off a less dense substance
Laws of Reflection:
1. The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection (for a flat/place mirror)
2. The incident ray, reflected ray, and the normal are all on the same plane
The bending effect of a wave as it enters a different medium (at an angle) is caused by the change in speed of the wave. One side of the wave goes slower than the other side, causing the wave to turn/change direction.
The amount of refraction that occurs will depend on the angle in which the wave enters the new medium and on the density and other properties of the medium.
Hello
Factors affecting the amount of diffraction:
1. Size of Opening
the smaller the opening, the more diffraction

2. Wavelength
the larger the wavelength, the more diffraction
To Maximize Diffraction:
Size of Opening = Wavelength
There are 5 different types of interference:
Total constructive interference
Total destructive interference
Partial interference
Beats
Resonance
: occurs when two or more waves act in the same medium; the result of adding waves together.
Total Constructive Interference
Only occurs when two waves have the same frequency and wavelength
The
crest
of one wave adds to the
crest
of another wave
The result is a larger wave (has a larger amplitude)
Total Destructive Interference
Only occurs when two waves have the same frequency and wavelength
The
crest
of one wave adds to the
trough
of another wave
The result is no wave
Partial Interference
Only occurs when two waves have the same frequency and wavelength
The waves are added so that the crest and troughs do not line up directly
The result is a wave with various amplitudes (the amplitude increases and decreases randomly)
Beats
Occurs when two waves with similar (but not identical) frequencies are added together
The beat has a very predictable pattern
The resulting wave increases and decreases in amplitude regularly
Resonance
: a special form of constructive interference in which certain objects can be excited to vibrate; when an outside force is applied at the natural frequency of an object an increase in amplitude occurs
Applications of Resonance
windows rattling when a truck passes by
medical imaging (ultrasound, MRI)
design of buildings and bridges
air columns
pushing someone on a swing
breaking a glass with your voice
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