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Brass - Alloys Assignment

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Ashleigh Quee

on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of Brass - Alloys Assignment

Brass The purpose of this presentation is to gain, evaluate and apply knowledge of the properties, constituent element’s properties, uses, advantages and disadvantages of the metal alloy brass. An alloy is a substance composed of two or more metals. (Alloy, Dictionary.com). Interstitial alloys are created when the atoms of the metals (or non-metals) involved differ greatly in size. In this case the smaller atoms move to fit between the larger atoms. (Chemical Connections, 1999). An alloy is created by melting the metals together and cooling the resulting mixture. Occasionally elements that are non-metals will be used to form an alloy with a metal (for example; carbon). There are two main types of alloys; substitutional alloys and interstitial alloys. Substitutional alloys are created when the atoms of the metals involved are of roughly the same size and are therefore able to replace each other in the metal crystal lattice. The alloy that I have chosen to research is brass – an alloy of copper and zinc. The percentage of copper and zinc present in brass affects the appearance of the alloy, as well as a number of other properties (such as density, malleability, electrical and thermal conductivity, etc.). (Melford, 2013). Brass is a substitutional alloy which can have a copper content of around 55% to 95% (remaining percentage, zinc). Properties of Brass Brass with a composition of 65% copper and 35% zinc has a high tensile strength and is referred to as “high brass”. (Brass, 2013 Wikipedia). Brass is commonly a muted yellow (more dull than gold, yet still bright) but depending on the quantity of copper present, brass’ appearance ranges from red to gold to silver. Brass is a good electrical conductor and an excellent thermal conductor. (Brass, Copper Development Association). It is highly malleable (very easily shaped) and easily machined but when the brass has a higher zinc content (around 45%), it becomes hard and quite brittle. (Melford, 2013). Brass’ melting point is around 900°C, which is relatively low. It also flows when it is melted, contributing to the ease of shaping and drawing brass. (Brass vs Bronze, DiffEn). and the addition of tin prevents dezincification – the removal of zinc from the alloy. (Brass, 2013 Wikipedia). In order to obtain special properties, other elements are sometimes added to the copper-zinc alloy of brass. For example; the addition of aluminium to brass increases the alloy’s corrosion resistance, the addition of lead increases the machinability of brass Properties: Comparison between Brass & its constituent parts (Copper and Zinc). 1 Copper, 2013 Wikipedia, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper>.
2 Zinc, n.d. Elmhurst, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/102zinc.html>.
3 Brass vs Bronze, n.d. DiffEn, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.diffen.com/difference/Brass_vs_Bronze>.
4 Technical data for Copper, n.d. PeriodicTable.com, accessed 11 April 2013, <http://periodictable.com/Elements/029/data.pr.html>.
5 Technical data for Zinc, n.d. PeriodicTable.com, accessed 11 April 2013, <http://periodictable.com/Elements/030/data.html>.
6 Brass, 2008 Evans, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.evanstechnology.com/brass.html>.
7 Brass, 2013 Copper Development Association, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.copperinfo.co.uk/alloys/brass/>.
8 Zinc - Zn, 2012 Lenntech, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/zn.htm#Zinc>.
9 Some Info About Brass, 2006 Extreme Metal Works, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.exmetalworks.com/brass.htm>.
10 Copper - Cu, 2012 Lenntech, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/cu.htm#Atomic%20number>. References (footnotes) used in table: Copper is so influential over brass’ properties because brass generally contains more copper than zinc. From the above table it can be seen that many of the properties of brass are more similar to the properties of copper than they are to the properties of zinc. For example; both brass and copper are excellent thermal conductors but zinc is only a fair thermal conductor, brass and copper are very similar in colour and brass and copper are both very malleable and ductile. Uses Brass is also often used for fittings and tools around explosive gases as it is important that no sparks can be struck in these situations. (Brass, 2013 Wikipedia). Brass is used for musical instruments such as the trombone, tuba, trumpet, cornet, euphonium, tenor horn, French horn, saxophone and the harmonica because of its malleability and acoustic properties. (Brass vs Bronze, DiffEn). It is often used for decoration, because of its bright appearance – similar to that of gold. Low friction applications such as locks, gears, bearings, doorknobs and ammunition casings are commonly made out of brass, as are various plumbing and electrical applications. Bibliography James, M, Derbogosian, M, Bowen, S, Raphael, S & Moloney, J 1999, Chemical Connections, 3rd Edition edn, John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd., Milton, QLD.

Brass, 2013 Copper Development Association, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.copperinfo.co.uk/alloys/brass/>.

Brass vs Bronze, n.d. DiffEn, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.diffen.com/difference/Brass_vs_Bronze>.

Melford, S 2013, 'Brass' , World Book Student, World Book, Chicago, viewed 8 April 2013, <http://worldbookonline.com/student/printarticle?id=ar074600>.

Brass, 2008 Evans, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.evanstechnology.com/brass.html>.

Some Info About Brass, 2006 Extreme Metal Works, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.exmetalworks.com/brass.htm>.

Alloy, 2013 Dictionary.com, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/alloy?s=t>.

Brass, 2013 Wikipedia, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brass>.

Education - Properties and uses of copper, n.d. European Copper Institution, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.eurocopper.org/copper/copper-education.html>.

Copper - Cu, 2012 Lenntech, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/cu.htm#Atomic%20number>.

Copper, 2013 Wikipedia, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper>.

Zinc - Zn, 2012 Lenntech, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/zn.htm#Zinc>.

Zinc, n.d. Elmhurst, accessed 9 April 2013, <http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/102zinc.html>.

Technical data for Copper, n.d. PeriodicTable.com, accessed 11 April 2013, <http://periodictable.com/Elements/029/data.pr.html>.

Technical data for Zinc, n.d. PeriodicTable.com, accessed 11 April 2013, <http://periodictable.com/Elements/030/data.html>. Substitutional Alloy diagram. Interstitial Alloy Diagram. Copper (Cu) & Zinc (Zn) Alloy Example Diagram Cu Zn Zn Zn Zn Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Brass Objects Advantages of Brass For example; having a higher copper content makes the alloy more malleable, making it easier to shape the brass into instruments or various applications. The flexibility of brass’ properties is one of the alloy's advantages. Being able to change the properties of brass easily by varying the amount of copper, zinc or any other elements present in the alloy allows brass to be used for many different things. Brass can be rolled for the purpose of creating sheets and plates and drawn for the purpose of making wire, tubes or rods, It can also be forged, pressed and spun. This also means that the alloy is most likely quite ductile. The malleability and varying softness of brass is another of the alloy's advantages as it makes it extremely easy to shape. The wide range of colours and the high-quality shine that brass can achieve is another of the advantages of the alloy, making it very popular with designers and people decorating their homes. Brass' excellent thermal conductivity is yet another advantage as this means that the alloy would heat up (and potentially cool down) quickly. Disadvantages of Brass Copper is highly susceptible to corrosion, so brass that has a high copper content may corrode more easily than brass that has a lower copper content. Brass has a relatively low melting point and excellent thermal conductivity, which means that if it was to be exposed to high temperature environments, it would heat up quickly and retain this heat for some time, making it difficult to work with in some cases. Brass is not as good an electrical conductor as copper, due to the zinc (which is not the best electrical conductor) content of the alloy.. From this presentation it can be gathered that brass is a substitutional alloy composed of mainly copper and zinc with a few other elements occasionally added. Brass has many properties similar to copper, due to its high copper content and is made stronger by the zinc present in the alloy. It can also be used for a wide variety of items and appliances due to its good thermal and electrical conductivity and its high malleability and ductility. Thanks for viewing my presentation!
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