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Lewis and Clark Expedition1st draft

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Gage Patton

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of Lewis and Clark Expedition1st draft

Gage Patton
AP History
2nd Block Lewis and Clark Expedition William Clark was also born in Virginia, but moved to Kentucky as a teenager. He learned early in life about how to live among the Indians. He was four years older than Lewis. His personality was opposite of Lewis'. He was outgoing and friendly which helped Lewis and Clark's relations with Indians they encountered. He was also a leader and was at home on the frontier. His experience as an Army officer made him experienced in decision making. He was practical and resourceful. Meriwether Lewis was born in Virginia and was a neighbor of Thomas Jefferson when he was a boy. At an early age, he moved to Georgia. As a young man he served in the Army, where he was a paymaster and traveled up and down the Ohio River. It was here he met William Clark. He was trained personally by Thomas Jefferson on the latest techniques of scientific observation. He was an adventurer at heart. He was an experienced outdoorsman having grown up exploring the wilderness of Virginia and Georgia. In 1801, Thomas Jefferson asked him to become his Secretary-Aide. Meriwether Lewis America signed the Louisiana Purchase Treaty on April 30, 1803. This treaty between America and France granted America 828,000 square miles of land at a price of about three cents an acre. America's size doubled by the acquisition of this land. Louisiana Purchase President Thomas Jefferson wanted to find a connecting waterway that could be used for trade and commerce all the way to the Pacific Ocean. He asked Meriwether Lewis to explore the Missouri River to find out if it was connected to other waterways. He also wanted to study the plants and animals that were only found in the West. Lewis selected his friend William Clark to help him lead this expedition. Part of their mission was to map the area and keep journals describing the land, the animals and the plants and flowers. They were to also establish a relationship with the Indians. Thomas Jefferson requested $2,500.00 for this expedition and it was granted to him. Effects of the Louisiana Purchase The Acquisition of 828,000 square miles of land prompted Thomas Jefferson to organize an expedition to explore the newly acquired Louisiana territory. William Clark Pictured Above is President Thomas Jefferson, the driving force of Lewis and Clark's Expedition Sacagawea, a Shoshone indian, was kidnapped when she was 12 years old and sold to a French- Canadian fur trader who called her his wife. Sacagawea and her husband were hired as interpreters by Lewis and Clark for the Expedition. A few months before the Expedition, she delivered her son, Jean Baptiste nick-named Pompy by Clark, at the American Fort Mandan. Sacagawea was a guide during the Expedition having remembered many of the indian trails from her childhood. She was also the only woman on the Expedition. Her presence on the Expedition assured the Indian tribes they met that the Expedition wasn't a war party. She was well-respected on the Expedition as evidenced by her right to vote on important matters. Sacagawea died a few years after the Expedition was over. William Clark adopted her son. Sacagawea The Corps of Discovery, as it was called by President Jefferson, began their journey on May 14, 1804. There were 3 boats, one about 50 feet in length and two smaller boats, and between forty and fifty persons who began the journey. They began by traveling up the Missouri River. They traveled over 600 miles through the end of July and never met a single Indian. However, this wasn't because they weren't looking for them. They would camp on little islands in the river at night and post guards to keep watch. They were always armed and ready. Their first encounter with the Indians came in August 1804. They met the Oto and Missouri Indians who were friendly. They prepared themselves for a much different meeting when they would later encounter the Sioux. It was late August when they got their first glimpse of the plains and the many animals that roamed there....elk, deer and bison to name a few. Their first encounter with the Sioux came in September 1804. The Sioux didn't appreciate the gifts they were given, and instead wanted a boat to insure the Corps safe passage on the river. This was not a good exchange and Clark drew his sword against the Indians while the Indians did the same. Both sides finally withdrew from the controversy, and the Expedition continued up the river. The Corps didn't if they were being pursued or not. President Jefferson's hopes for a peaceful association with the Sioux did not get off to a very good start. The Corps reached the Mandan Indians village four days after the first snowfall. They wanted to find a place to spend the winter before the river froze. They began building a fort immediately. They needed protection from the weather and the Sioux Indians. It was here that they met and hired Sacagawea and her husband. They spent the winter hunting for meat, learning from the Indians and journalling about what they had seen and encountered thus far. They made it through to the thaw, when they put together botanical and mineral samples along with one of Clark's maps and sent them back to St. Louis to President Jefferson on one of the boats. A full year into the Expedition they caught sight of the Rockies. However, it was still slow getting there. The river was shallow with many twists and turns. On June 3, 1805, they came to a fork in the river and couldn't decide which way to go. Groups were sent out in each direction to find the Great Falls which the Indians had told them was the way to the Rocky Mountains. Lewis' was the first to see the Great Falls. It would take a full month to carry the boats and all of their supplies 18 miles around the falls to a place they could get back into the river and travel safely.

The picture is a depiction of the Great Falls. As they got closer and closer to the Rocky Mountains, they realized their need for horses. Their plan was to trade with the Shoshone Indians. They finally met up with a lone Shoshone who took them to the Chief, who, so the story goes, was Sacagawea's brother. The horses were not in the best of shape. However, along with the horses, they also acquired information about a trail across the continental divide which was vital. This is a picture of them using horses in their trek. This was one of the most difficult portions of the Expedition. There wasn't much food and the men and horses were very hungry. They crossed to the other side of the Continental divide into the Bitterroot Valley and prepared for crossing the mountains. The journey through the Bitterroot Mountains was the worst. They were almost starving and had to eat 3 of their horses. They finally emerged and made camp on the Clearwater River. They were able to get some dried fruit and seeds from Indians. Here, they hollowed out some canoes and got ready to make use of the water as a way of transportation again. They made it to the Pacific Ocean by way of the Columbia River by the middle of November. They made camp south of the Columbia River. There they built Fort Clatsop named for the local Indians. They spent a long winter there. By March they were anxious to get started on their trek back to St. Louis. They battled the current upstream, but finally abandoned the boats and traded with some Indians for horses to go across land. Finally, Lewis and Clark decided to divide into two groups in order to explore more of the Louisiana Territory. They reunited at a fork in the Missouri River and traveled together to Fort Mandan where some of the crew departed, including Sacagawea. From here they made the final journey back to St. Louis where they were given a heroes welcome.


This shows the land acquired in the Louisiana Purchase. This is a picture showing Sacagawea with her infant son on her back. Above is a photo of a journal showing some of the supplies
purchased for the Expedition. Above is a picture of a depiction of the larger boat. Left is a bison they may have seen on the plains. This is a depiction of Fort Mandan. Here Lewis and Clark talk with some Indians. Picture of Fort Clotsap This picture depicts the struggle with the Sioux Indians over the trade disagreement.
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References
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