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HHD Unit 1 AOS 2

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Rachel Weiss

on 21 April 2016

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Transcript of HHD Unit 1 AOS 2

Health and Human Development Unit 1
Area of Study 2
Key skills:
describe the characteristics of youth development
interpret data on the health status of Australia's youth
explain the determinants of health and their impact on youth using relevant examples
identify the sources of nutrients and the functions they perform in the body for health and development during youth
explain the impact of food behaviours on youth health and development
analyse information about youth food behaviours and draw informed conclusions about health and development
Australia's Youth Health and Development
Youth is the common term not adolescence

Adolescence is generally referred to as physical maturity (from the onset of puberty to the end of the growth period). Physical changes are only one aspect of the transition and young people spend more time reaching maturity in other areas of development.

Youth combines all the changes experienced during the period from childhood to adulthood, not just the physical
Physical Development during youth
Students work in small groups
Complete for either a male or female
Trace around the body using butchers paper
Brainstorm all the physical changes that occur during puberty and write/draw them in
Discuss as class and add any missed
Body parts directly involved in reproduction
Testes grow and start producing sperm
Penis enlarges
First ejaculation
First ovulation
First menstruation
The ovaries, uterus, vagina, labia and clitoris enlarge in size
Physical Development
Primary Sex Characteristics
Changes that occur to both males and females but are not directly related to reproduction and are not present at birth.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Hormones bring about the physical changes during youth including triggering puberty

Gonadotropin (GnRH) starts puberty by releasing both the Leuitinising hormone (LH) and the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Both these hormones are released from the pituitary gland and act on the testes to produce and release testosterone and the ovaries to produce and release oestrogen
Growth hormone is also released to increase growth rate and ultimately increases in height and size of muscle mass.
Factors Influencing Puberty
Females generally mature earlier
Short and stocky youth generally mature earlier than tall and lean
Obesity or excessive thinness may delay the onset of puberty
Environmental factors such as stress levels, SES, environmental toxins, nutritional intake, exercise levels and the presence or absence of chronic illness
Raging Teens DVD
ICT activity
Access the above webpage and navigate the site by clicking on the different spots of the male and female body.
Create a table in your book and summarise the information given on each of the body parts below (dot points is fine) and watch the animations about what happens in each area for males and females during puberty.
Voicebox & Breasts
Genitals & Hair
Social Development
Youth move from being largely dependent on parents, to being largely independent which can cause conflict.

They learn how to act in different groups and change their behaviour according to the situation

Socialise with a broader social group during this stage, exposing them to new beliefs and values.

Increases communication skills

The peer group is extremely influential at this stage and may lead to experimentation of behaviours or engagement in ‘risky’ behaviours
Experience new types of relationships such as the first intimate relationship and sexual experience

Sexual identity is developed

Move from being preoccupied with what others think of them to developing a greater concern for others

Rites of passage are linked to this stage for some cultures and families example: Staying home alone for the first time, going on a date or learning to drive.
Emotional Development
In early stages youth might be very self-conscious due to all the physical changes and adults treating them different due to their physical appearance

Extremes in mood due to hormones that can cause conflict with others (often parents and other family members).

Youth may experience negative emotions such as isolation, rejection and loneliness due to the conflict

Youth might seek emotional independence. For example, they might try to solve their own problems without the input of parents
More responsibility can lead to emotions such as guilt, remorse, happiness and fulfilment.

Seek intimacy and affection from changing relationships

Experience emotions such as love and lust

Understanding of the appropriate ways of expressing all the emotions experienced at this stage

Adequately express their feelings in words and regulate their emotions

Deeper feeling of who they are as people as they settle on values and beliefs
Intellectual Development
Physiological changes occur in the brain and in the way that the young person perceives problems.
Youth can see ‘grey’ areas in problems rather than only ‘black and white’
Abstract thought develops as opposed to the concrete thoughts
Information can be processed more efficiently
Reasoning skills increase

Focus on the future increases
Thinking becomes more informed and the distinction between fact and opinion is more evident
Able to challenge views put to them by others
More complex concepts are learned at school and an understanding of how they learn best may be apparent
Interesting Research
Some research suggests that the frontal lobe (a part of the brain) is not fully developed until the end of puberty — possibly not until the 20s. The state of the brain during these years may make youths favour immediate rewards and disregard long-term consequences.
It is thought that this aspect of brain development may account for why youth are more likely to take risks than children or adults.
How much is too much?
Turn to page 72 of the Journey Through HHD Textbook

Complete the data analysis task in small groups
Risk Taking
Risk taking is part of the process of growing up and is a characteristic of the youth lifespan stage.
Can challenge youth in positive and negative ways – situations (social dilemas), new activities (abseiling), exposure to adverse behaviours (smoking).
HARMFUL risk taking behaviour, often linked to the brain not being fully developed, can cause serious impediment to development – creating longer term issues for health and well-being
Homework Task
Write this in your Diary!
Read the pages of the text and complete the Review Questions from the following pages:
p73 on risk taking
top of p74

Please answer the questions in full sentence form so I know what you are talking about.
Due Date: Thursday, March 15th
Determinants of Health
What factors influence or (determine) the health and development of youth?
Biological determinants or factors are concerned with the body’s cells, tissues, organs and systems, and how they function.

They include:
Hormonal changes
Body weight
Blood pressure
Cholesterol levels

Some are predetermined and out of an individuals control while others can be determined by behavioural determinants.
Biological Determinants
Behavioural Determinants
Behavioural determinants or factors focus on the decisions people make and how they choose to lead their lives (their actions). Behaviours involve knowledge, attitudes and beliefs.

These include behaviours to do with:
sun protection
eating habits and food intake
physical activity levels
substance use – smoking, alcohol, other drugs
sexual practices, oral hygiene
seeking help from health professionals etc.
Social Environment Determinants
The social environment encompasses: the physical environment which includes the physical things that make up the environment

They include:
Air and water quality
Housing (overcrowding, unsafe and unhygienic)
Recreation facilities and parks
Available health care
Workplace safety
Access to recreational facilities
Social Environment
The social environment refers to the ‘social situation’ (social, economic, cultural, and political) in which people live.

This includes:
the people with whom an individual associates with such as the family
The decisions that are made on behalf of the community (e.g. policies and laws) and the services available
The position of an individual compared to others in society: socio economic status
Physical surrounds of an environment
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.

When analyzing a family’s SES, the household income, earners' education, and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, versus with an individual, when their own attributes are assessed.
Socio-economic Status
Apply your knowledge:
Natalie is in year 11 at a school in Melbourne. She lives with her mother and brother and has a good network of friends. Natalie's mother has recently become unemployed and is currently looking for work. Her mother is a smoker and smokes in their house. Although Natalie plays netball with her school friends at the local sports centre once a week, she has started to put on weight in recent months and this has taken her above her healthy body weight. In recent weeks, Natalie has been going out with her friends and experimenting with alcohol and smoking cigarettes.

1. a) Identify five determinants of health and development for Natalie and name which of the four categories each determinant fits into.
b) Select three of these and explain their impact on her health and development.
Genetics play a major role in the patterns of growth and development during youth in the final adult size to be reached.
A person has genetic potential in many aspects of their physical appearance (e.g. height, weight, skin colour, freckles, hair and eye colour, muscle mass and facial features).
Other determinants can impact on this potential such as nutrition
Diseases and conditions such as cancer, depression and anxiety, respiratory conditions such as asthma and endocrine conditions such as diabetes all have a genetic component
Hormonal Changes
Hormones regulate the timing and rate of development, functioning of the immune system, mood, the regulation of body processes such as metabolism, and anxiety levels.
hormones triggers puberty at youth
Generally the earlier an individual starts puberty, the faster they move through it
The regular fluctuations in hormones for females can contribute to other aspects of health such as mood and abdominal pain. Testosterone in males is thought to have an influence on their higher rates of risk-taking and ultimately injury.

How could starting puberty early impact positively and negatively on health and development?
Several hormones act on the body during youth controlling the growth spurt and sexual maturation.
Gonadotropin (GnRH) starts puberty by releasing both the Leuitinising hormone (LH) and the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Both these hormones are released from the pituitary gland and act on the testes to produce and release testosterone and the ovaries to produce and release oestrogen
Growth hormone is also released to increase growth rate and ultimately increases in height and size of muscle mass.

Body weight that does not fall within the healthy limits for height can have a number of effects on youth health and development.

Being underweight can weaken the immune system and make a person more infections such as cold and flu’s and disease such as anaemia and reduced bone density.

Many of the effects of being overweight or obese occur in the long term

Conditions and disease such as cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer, respiratory problems and arthritis
Body Weight
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Generally, body weight is measured using the body mass index (BMI). The BMI is calculated using the following formula:

BMI = Weight (kg)/Height (m)2

Why is this not always a good indication if a person is overweight?
BMI Activity
1.Calculate the BMI and determine the weight range for each of the following:
a) a 10 year old boy - 140cm tall, 47kg
b) an 18 year old girl - 175cm tall, 52kg

2. a) A 15 year old boy with the same height and weight as the 10 year old boy would fall into which weight category?
b) Why is there a difference between the two?
c) What might the short and long term health implications be for the 10 year old boy if he maintains this pattern.

3. What might the short and long term health implications be for the female if she maintains this pattern?
Youth & Behavioural Determinants
At the youth stage of the lifespan they are starting to take more responsibility for their choices. They can have short term and long term effects on health and development.

Some behavioural determinants include:
Sun protection
Substance use (tobacco and alcohol use)
Sexual practices
Developing and maintaining friendships
Seeking help from health professionals
Data Analysis
In groups of two or three, you will be allocated a behavioural determinant of health impacting on youth.

Use your textbook to discuss the possible effects on all aspects of health and development

Create a small brochure that will be given to other students and shared orally with the group.
Learning Task!
Tobacco Smoke in the Home
ETS (environmental tobacco smoke) can prevent lungs functioning at their optimal level which could effect physical activity levels and therefore motor development.
Can lead to asthma and other respiratory problems
Increases risk of developing heart disease by 25 to30 per cent and lung cancer by 20 to 30 per cent
Young people in households with a smoker are more likely to take up smoking themselves
ABS National Health Survey (NHS), between 1995 and 2004–05 the proportion of Australian households with dependent children where household members smoked inside decreased from 31 per cent to12 per cent
Housing Environment
Physical aspects that impact on health and development:
Indoor pollutants (causing asthma and other respiratory conditions)
Drinking water quality
warmth (people living in dwellings that are damp, cold or mouldy are at greater risk of respiratory conditions, meningococcal infection and asthma)
Number of bedrooms
Safety of the housing
Work Environment
There are risks for youth working in part time jobs
Occupational health and safety laws in Australia are designed to ensure that employers provide a safe environment (machinery, training and supervision).
Working outdoors can leave them exposed to UV radiation and other elements such as heat and cold
The types of repetitive tasks youth are expected to do can impact both positively and negatively on health
Some work places put youth at risk of falls, burns and lacerations

How can youth employment impact on the other areas of health and development. Think about the job you do?
Access to Recreational Facilities
Access to recreation facilities:
the distance from home to a venue will influence whether or not youth become involved in activities
Provide young people with opportunities for social interaction and physical activity which impacts on all areas of health and development.
Make a list of recreational activities (within a 30min walk of home) that you could participate in.
How often do you use these facilities?
How do you get there?
Are there any facilities not located in your area that you would use if they were closer?
How do they impact on health and development?
Quick Questions
Social Environment
Family Cohesion
Family cohesion refers to the closeness or bonds within a family
Issues such as substance abuse, mental illness and suicide may be the result of poor family cohesion
The family may also provide a resource for young people to discuss problems and seek advice.
A family that regularly socialises and communicates could assist in the social skills and emotional development of youth.
Family members can pass on new knowledge which can improve intellectual development
Parental Health & Disability
A young person may have to take on the responsibility of caring for a sick parent.
The role may help youth to develop a sense of maturity and independence.
May leave less time for them to socialise, exercise and attend school
May be emotionally draining affecting mental health
May increase the bond between youth and parent improving social health
Socio-economic Status
Socioeconomic status (SES) focuses on three key areas: education, employment and income.
People from higher SES groups have lower mortality and morbidity rates and display lower rates of risk factors.
Youth in full time education living at home rely on their parents for financial support
Long-term unemployment of parents can lead to high levels of stress and family conflict
Families without an employed parent generally have low incomes and therefore live in lower economic circumstances
A low income could mean that money is not available to spend on resources that can promote health and development of youth
Social Environment (Community)
How can the different forms of media impact on health and development?
Social Support
Youth with good social support tend to have lower morbidity and mortality rates
Social networks create a knowledge base where people can learn new things, influence one another’s behaviour and have a range of people to talk to creating less psychological distress
Community and civic participation
Being involved in a community group gives young people a social network and can generate a sense of achievement and worth
Allows them to mix with likeminded people who share similar values
Can provide youth with relaxation and stress relief, which promotes mental health.
By contributing to the community young people can derive a sense of pride and pleasure, enhancing self-esteem.
The living arrangements of the homeless person may not be as hygienic as a stable home
The lack of security may leave the homeless more vulnerable to assaults, stress, depression and mental illness.
More likely to engage in risk-taking behaviours
Difficult to gain employment or receive support payments due to no fixed address
Influences which help
guard against
Protective Factors
Risk Factors
Influences that
the likelihood of ill-health
12-18 years
On a new page in your book:
Divide the page into 4 boxes and label each box with each type of development
While watching the video record any characteristics of youth development that is discussed in the video
Risk or Protective factors that influence the state of health of an individual, group or community.
In your workbook, create a matrix to record summary notes for the four categories of determinants.

Range of healthcare services available to youth

The Australian healthcare system includes a wide range of government and non-government service providers, such as medical practitioners, other health professionals, hospitals, research centres, pharmaceutical companies and private health insurance companies.

Research one of the suggested youth healthcare services or another of your choice and answer the following questions:
1 Where is it located?
2 What services are provided?
3 How can you access these services?
4 What does the service require of the young person?
Textbook task
p. 188
Medicare is the Australian Government’s national funded health scheme that subsidises the cost of medical services so that all Australians have access to free or low-cost medical, optometry and hospital care.
It was introduced by the Commonwealth Government in 1984 with the aim to provide access to healthcare at little or no cost to all Australians in need of treatment, regardless of age or income.
Everyone who lives in Australia and who is an Australian citizen, a New Zealand citizen or who has a permanent visa is entitled to use Medicare services.
Anyone over the age of 15 years may be enrolled on their own Medicare card.

1 What is Medicare? What are its
2 Who is covered by Medicare?
3 Explain how Medicare is funded.
4 List the services that are covered by Medicare and those that are not.
5 Identify the extra service that can be provided by Medicare.
Activity 5.11
Understanding Medicare
What about Private Health Insurance?
Private health insurance is an optional insurance, to offer some additional services, and some broader options for hospital care.

When we have private health insurance, the insurance company will pay for our medical treatment, instead of Medicare.

As Medicare is funded by the Government and taxes, it is beneficial to the Government that people have health insurance - this is why we have the 'Lifetime health cover loading' and 'Private health insurance rebate'
Rights and Responsibilities
Rights :
A condition of life that everyone is entitled to.

Responsibilities :
The opportunity or ability to act independently and make decisions, but with an understanding that there is a moral obligation to behave correctly towards or in respect of others in terms of personal behaviours.

Everyone, as a healthcare
consumer, has certain rights and responsibilities.
Refer to pages 190-193
In your workbook, create a summary table of the rights and responsibilities accessing and using relevant health services
Full transcript