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Listening Seminar - Facilitating Listening Skill

The Measurement of Co-constructive Listening

osnat yam

on 20 October 2012

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Transcript of Listening Seminar - Facilitating Listening Skill

The Measurement of Co-constructive Listening Listening Sales Patient luck
of anxiety Subordinate
Well-being Osnat Bouskila-Yam
Listening Seminar
IDC 2012 What is listening? How listening
was measured? How listening
should be measured? Good listening was shown to positively correlate with sales, customer trust, subordinate well being, and patient lack of anxiety 4 conclusions on current listening scales: listening process was defined as:
(a) passive
(b) merely cognitive Listning Processes are:
Active - constructive or destructive
Affective & Cognitive The search for all existing measurement scales yielded 10 scales from a variety of fields existing measures rarely measures the effectiveness of listening: e.g., “When I listen, people open their heart to me”
the process of co-constructing a conversation was studied in experimental lab research Five scales didn't report any theory:
Kubota (1997), Castro (2010), Pearce (2003), Fassaert (2007), Worthington (2010)
Five scales have theories:
Ramsey & Sohi (1997), Castleberry (1999), Drollinger (2006) , Mishima et al. (2000), Ellis (2002) 4
predictors Steil et al., 1983 in Ramsey & Sohi, 1997
(a) “sensing” - receiving stimuli and attending to the message
(b) “evaluating” - assigning meaning to the message
(c) “responding” - uni-lateral reaction to the message Person-Centered Attitude (PCA)
Carl R. Rogers, 1951
“empathic understanding”
“unconditional positive regard”
“congruence” Martin Buber (Fishban, 1998)
confirmation theory Examples:
Kubota (1997) did not report any factor analysis results
Ramsey & Sohi’s (1997) results showed very high loading of the three latent constructs (sensing = .92, evaluating = .99, and responding = .98)
The Interpersonal Listening Personal Selling (ILSP) yielded three factors (Castleberry, 1999)
The active listening observation scale (ALOS-global) yielded only one factor (Fassaert et al., 2007)
The AEL scale yielded the expected three factor (Drollinger et al., 2006)
Ramsey and Shoi (1997) that failed to provide a convincing evidence for more than one factor
Mishima et al. (2000) reported three factors
The PCBI scale had only one factor: confirmation-disconfirmation (Ellis, 2002)
The listening style profile (LSP-16) yielded four factors (Worthington, 2010)
The listening style inventory (LSI) had three factors in study 1 and four factors in study 2 (Pearce et al., 2003) low correspondence to the theory High correspondence to the theory High correspondence to the theory
Low correspondence to listening 1
behaviors 2
theory 3
structure Examples:
Scores on an active listening scale were raised after an active listening training (Kubota et al., 1997; Pearce et al., 2003)
Listening scale administered to customers regarding their sales person was positively correlated with (a) trust and (b) anticipation of future interaction (Ramsey & Sohi, 1997)
All three ALAS scales showed higher scores among clinical therapists who specialize in psychosomatic medicine than among workers (Mishima et al., 2000)
Supervisor listening skills were shown to correlate with reduced somatic complaints among their subordinates (Mineyama et al., 2007)
The AEL scales were correlated with self-reported (a) trust, (b) relationships skills and (c) selling performance effectiveness (Drollinger et al., 2006)
The ALOS-global has shown a positive relationship between active listening by general practitioner physicians and patients’ pre-visit anxiety level (Fassaert et al., 2007)
A positive significant correlation was found between the ILPS scale and the salesperson’s performance (R. a. S. Castleberry, 1999, 2004)
The listening styles according to the LSP-16 were associated with each of three personality dimensions: psychotic, extraversion and neuroticism Listening
behaviors Listening
consequences Constructive Co-Constructive Destructive Co-Destructive Facilitate Listening Skills Scale H 1
the FLS will yield four factors: constructive and destructive listening behaviors and co-constructive and co-destructive listening consequences H 2
there will be positive correlations between the respective listening behaviors and listening consequences Facilitate Listening Scale Why? Speaking Vs. Listening “Listening is a cognitive process of actively sensing, interpreting, evaluating and responding…” (Castleberry, 1993; Drollinger, comer and Warrington, 2006; Ramsey & Sohi, 1997 Empathic Listening:
"the ability to perceive the internal frame of reference of another with accuracy and with the emotional components and meaning… as if one were the other person, but without ever losing the ‘as if’ condition” (Rogers, 1975) Customer
Trust Most scales predicted several factors but produced partial evidence for more than one factor
The only exception is Mishima whose first two factors appear to indicate destructive and constructive listening style listening skill scales were found to be valid predictors of various criteria How did we design the FLS? Step III
Pre-test Deliver the FLS to 20 employees Friend brings friend

n=1000 employees Step IV
Delivering Upload the scale to the web Kubota 97 Ramsey & Sohi 97 Ellis 2008 Drollinger 2006 Mishima 2000 Castro 2010 Worthington LSP-16 Pearce et al 2003 Fassaert et al 2007 Castleberry 1999 Kubota 97
"You try to listen seriously to workers" Step 1
Laundry basket Step II
Items rewrite FLS 2011:
"listens to me seriously" Correct few items Cognitive
Affective Cognitive
Affective Thank You Self Exploration Bonding Feeling Understood Psychological Safety & Empathy What is listening?
listening is “co-constructive” and “co-narration” process in which both the listener and the speaker participate in shaping the content and style of the conversation (Bavelas, Coates, & Johnson, 2000; Pasupathi, 2001)
Full transcript