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Chapter Ten, Section One

Greece meets Persia.

Tamara Fellows

on 18 May 2010

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Transcript of Chapter Ten, Section One

Chapter Ten, Section One
The Greek World cavalry a unit of soldiers who ride horses empire a group of people, nations or territories ruled by a single authority, especially an emperor or empress foe an enemy rebellion an organized attempt to overthrow a government or other authority by the use of violence strategy a plan for fighting a battle or war Zoroastrianism a religion that taught there were two forces
fighting for control of the universe originally known as Zarathustrianism created by Zoroaster in the 6th century B.C.E. one force good (Ahura Mazdah)
and one force evil (Ahriman) there are lesser deities representing God Thought,
Highest Righteousness, Divine Kingdom, Pious Devotion,
Salvation and Immortality evil spirits are known as divs or daevas priests urged people to go with Goodness, Light and Life
rather than Evil, Darkness and Death approximately 150,000 people practice
this religion today
(mostly in Iran and India) people can't convert to this religion - it is inherited and
passed down through males - females can't pass this religion to their children if they marry outside of their faith Tower of Silence Zoroastrianists believe the body must be purified
prior to burial in the sacred earth they took the dead to the Tower of Silence and left it exposed to birds of prey and the sun for up to a year men would be arranged in the outer ring, women in the
second inner circle and children would be placed in
the center of the three rings inside the tower when the dead body was pure it would be removed and buried in the pit in the center of the tower where it would be mixed with lime and continue to disintegrate Who was Cyrus and why was he so “great”? (585-529 BCE) Persians lost a war to the Medes (Meedz) and were ruled by them for about 150 years Cyrus II led a Persian revolt against the
Medes in 550 BCE won independence for Persia and
conquered the Medes beginning of the Persian Empire
did not force people he conquered
to adopt Persian customs did not mistreat or harm
the people he conquered conquered most of Southwest Asia developed a strong army ruled one of the largest
empires in history Who were the “Immortals”? 10,000 soldiers chosen
for their bravery and skill heart of the Persian army What did the cavalry do? charged and shot at the
enemy with arrows weakened the enemy
before the Immortals attacked Who was Cambyses? Cyrus’ son was left in power after Cyrus died conquered Egypt died during a rebellion and
Persia was left without a true leader Who was Darius I and what did he do? a young prince who claimed the throne of
Persia and defeated all of his rivals divided the Persian Empire into
20 provinces to restore order each province was ruled by
a satrap (say-trap) he built roads to connect the empire
(Royal Road) built a new capital – Persepolis adopted a new religion
conquered the Indus Valley
stopped a Greek revolt and swore
revenge against them invaded Greece and started the Persian Wars Who was the satrap and what did he do? governor appointed by Darius each satrap ruled a province collected taxes for Darius served as judges put down rebellions remained loyal to Darius What kind of road system did Darius build? roads went throughout the Persian Empire made it easier to travel Royal Road was more than
1,700 miles long messengers helped to spread
information using the roads What was it like in Persepolis? Persepolis was the new capital of the Persian Empire filled with beautiful works of art statues covered with gold, silver and precious gems What were the Persian Wars? the first invasion Darius tried to avenge the revolt Greeks
had previously attempted he invaded at Marathon near Athens 11,000 Athenians vs 15,000 Persians Athenians had better weapons and better leaders
– Athenians won in the second invasion Darius’ son,
Xerxes I, invaded Greece Persian army and Persian navy Spartan army joined up with
Athenian army and navy 1,400 Spartan soldiers tried to keep the Persians out of Thermopylae, narrow mountain pass
– they lost and the Persians attacked Athens and burned it the Athenian navy led the
Persian navy into the narrow
straits of Salamis Persians could not steer all of
their ships through Athenian boats sank the Persian ships this naval invasion was the largest naval invasion of Europe until the Allied invasion of Sicily and Italy in 1943 (WWII) army of Greek soldiers defeated the Persians at
Plataea and it ended the Persian War
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