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Biology Regulation of Cell Cycle & Cancer

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K Krueger

on 14 January 2013

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Transcript of Biology Regulation of Cell Cycle & Cancer

Cell Cycle Regulation Cancer Abnormal Cell Growth tumor cells displace normal tissue cells If tumor cells move to a new location in the body... The cancer has metastasized. (metastasis = present tense) Cell Cycle Can be Turned On & Off Cyclins General name for proteins that regulate eukaryotic cell division Internal Regulation External Regulation Proteins within the cell that respond to internal cellular conditions Proteins that respond to external cellular conditions...often speed up or slow down cell division. Example:
Growth Factors
Hormones Examples:
G1 checkpoint
G2 checkpoint
M checkpoint Cells become a mass called a tumor Option 1: Tumor is Benign Benign Tumors are NONcancerous
& do not invade surrounding tissues. Option 2: Tumor is Malignant The metastasized cells can cause secondary tumors in other tissues. What Causes Cancer? Genetic Factors Lifestyle Factors Certain Types of Infections Environmental Exposure Some types of cancer appear more frequently in certain families, but most cancers are not clearly linked to the genes we inherit from our parents. Secondhand smoke is classified as a "known human carcinogen" (cancer-causing agent) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US National Toxicology Program, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a branch of the World Health Organization.

Tobacco smoke contains over 4,000 chemical compounds. More than 60 of these are known or suspected to cause cancer.

Diet, physical activity, excess body weight, and alcohol use may affect your risk of cancer Persistent HPV infections are now recognized as the major cause of cervical cancer. In 2007, it was estimated that 11,000 women in the United States would be diagnosed with this type of cancer and nearly 4,000 would die from it. Cervical cancer strikes nearly half a million women each year worldwide, claiming a quarter of a million lives. Studies also suggest that HPVs may play a role in some cancers of the anus, vulva, vagina, and penile cancer (cancer of the penis).

Parkin DM. The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002. International Journal of Cancer 2006; 118:30303044. Furniture and cabinet making
Painter (occupational exposure as a)
Asbestos
Hepatitis B & C virus
Mustard gas
Human papilloma viruses: some genital-mucosal types Estrogens
Chimney sweeping
Radon
Soots
Ultraviolet A radiation
Ultraviolet B radiation
Ultraviolet C radiation
Certain Pesticides
Tobacco smoke
Formaldehyde
Lead and lead compounds Sunlamps and sunbeds (use of)
X-radiation and gamma radiation Basic Cancer Genetics The current list of known cancer genes includes 70 genes associated with germline mutations and 342 genes associated with somatic mutations.
Chial, H. (2008) Proto-oncogenes to oncogenes to cancer. Nature Education 1(1) Generally mutations in two basic classes of genes— lead to cancer. proto-oncogenes & tumor suppressor Chial, H. (2008) Proto-oncogenes to oncogenes to cancer. Nature Education 1(1) proto-oncogenes & tumor suppressor Normally "Off" Normally "On" Examples of Proto-oncogenes Examples of tumor suppressor genes
KGF
int-2
MITF
cyclin D1 (CCND1)
cyclin E1 (CCNE1) RB
BRCA1
BRCA2
NF1
p53 Cancer Treatment Chemotherapy Radiation Surgery Other Radiation therapy kills cancer cells by damaging their DNA (the molecules inside cells that carry genetic information and pass it from one generation to the next) (1). Radiation therapy can either damage DNA directly or create charged particles (free radicals) within the cells that can in turn damage the DNA.

Cancer cells whose DNA is damaged beyond repair stop dividing or die. When the damaged cells die, they are broken down and eliminated by the body’s natural processes. Chemotherapy works by stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells, which grow and divide quickly. But it can also harm healthy cells that divide quickly, such as those that line your mouth and intestines or cause your hair to grow. Damage to healthy cells may cause side effects. Often, side effects get better or go away after chemotherapy is over.
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