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Steps up to Pearl Harbor and World War II Overview

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Jordan White

on 1 May 2014

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Transcript of Steps up to Pearl Harbor and World War II Overview

Pre War Events
Rise of Fascism in Europe
Italy: Benito Mussolini
Germany: Adolph Hitler
Fascist dictators create totalitarian regimes
Establish strong military states
Militarism in Japan
Japan was hard hit by the Depression
Japanese blame the government
Military leaders move into power
Return to more traditional government
Emperor becomes symbol of the nation
Military dominates the national agenda
Emperor Hirohito
Japanese Military Official
Japanese Expansion
Military leaders want to expand Japan's power & business
Build empire in Asia & the South Pacific
Promote extreme nationalism
Japanese have been "chosen" to rule Asia
Japan Invades Manchuria
September 1931: Japanese troops invade Manchuria
China puts up little resistance
Japan sets up a "puppet" government in Manchuria
League of Nations
The League protests Japan's invasion of Manchuria
League takes no action
1933: Japan withdraws from the League
Light of Asia
This cartoon criticizes Japan's actions in Asia by showing the treaties that they had signed during the 1920s promising peace. These treaties are in flames which would symbolize the end of peace in Asia
Japanese Delegates Leaving the League of Nations
Japan Invades China
1937: Japan invades northern China
Dec 1937: Japan controls all major areas of northern China
Brutal treatment of Chinese
"Rape of Nanking"
250,000 - 300,000 Chinese killed by Japanese troops
"There are so many bodies on the street, victims of group rape and murder. They were all stripped naked, their breasts cut off, leaving a terrible dark brown hole; some of them were bayoneted in the abdomen, with their intestines spilling out alongside them" - Li Ke-hen (eyewitness)
Bodies Buried in Mass Graves. Some Chinese were buried alive
Mussolini Invades Ethiopia
Oct 1935: Italian forces invade Ethiopia
Mussolini wants to extend Italy's empire
Italy's industrialized army over powers Ethipoia
League of Nations does nothing to stop Mussolini
Britain & France do not act
Hitler Makes His Move

1933: Hitler withdraws Germany from League of Nations
March 1935 Hitler begins rebuilding Germany's military
Violates Treaty of Versailles
League of Nations does nothing
March 1936: Hitler moves 30,000 troops into the Rhineland
Violates Treaty of Versailles
France & League do not act
"The forty-eight hours after the march into the Rhineland were the most nerve-racking in my life. If the French had marched into the Rhineland, we would have had to withdraw with our tail between our legs, for the military resources at our disposal would have been wholly inadequate for even a moderate resistance." - Hitler
What if France would have acted?
Hitler learns that the League and Britain & France will not oppose him. Hitler will continue to violate the Treaty and become more aggressive
Axis Powers
German Troops Enter the Rhineland
German Troops Enter the Rhineland
Oct 1936: Germany & Italy form an alliance
Rome-Berlin Axis
1 month later Japan joins the alliance
Axis Powers
Mussolini & Hitler
Italy Germany Japan
Civil War in Spain
July 1936: Gen Francisco Franco leads revolt in Spain
Tries to establish fascist dictatorship
Hitler & Mussolini send troops, tanks & planes to aid Franco
France & Britain send no aid
League of Nations powerless to stop the war
Gen Franco
American Isolationism
US in the midst Great Depression
Priority is American economy
Isolationism: America keeps to itself, not get involved in other nation's problems
President Roosevelt
President Roosevelt
Dr. Seuss
Organization started in 1940 to keep US out of the war.
Hitler Takes Austria
1937: Hitler plans to reunite Germany with Austria
Anschluss: Joining Austria with Germany
March 12, 1938: Nazi Troops march into Austria
Austria officially unites with Germany the following month
Violates Treaty of Versailles
German Troops Enter Austria
Poster Promoting Anschluss
Hitler Takes More
September 1938: Hitler wants control of the Sudetenland, part of Czechoslovakia
Britain protests this action
Sept 29, 1938: Munich Conference
Hitler meets with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
British will support Hitler if he promises not to take any more land (Czechoslovakia)
Hitler agrees to these terms
Munich Pact: Hitler takes Sudetenland and will not take Czechoslovakia
Chamberlain Hitler Mussolini
Chamberlain & Hitler
Chamberlain arriving in England, telling the British people that he had achieved "peace in our time".
Reaction of the people of the Sudetenland
Appeasement: giving in to someone's demands in order to avoid conflict
March 1939: Hitler takes control of Czechoslovakia
Breaks Munich Pact
"We are in the presence of a disaster of the first magnitude...we have sustained a defeat without war...and do not suppose that this is the end"
Winston Churchill
October 1938
Nazi - Soviet Nonaggression Pact
Germany & Soviet Union both want Poland
Nazis & Communists hate each other
Both sides want to avoid war with one another
Aug 23, 1939: Nazis & Soviets sign a nonaggression pact, agree not to go to war
Britain & France had been asking the Russians to join an alliance
Soviets & Germans agree to divide Poland
Germany will take the west, USSR will invade the east
Nonaggression Pact Cartoons
Signing of the Pact
World War II Begins
Hitler Invades Poland
Sept 1, 1939: German troops invade Poland
New style of warfare: Blitzkrieg "Lightning War"
Planes, tanks, light infantry moving fast
Sept 3: Britain & France declare war on Germany
World War II has begun
German Luftwaffe
German Tanks & Infantry
Sept 17: Soviets invade Poland from the east
The "Phony War"
Britain & France prepare for German attack
Nothing happens, "Sietzkrieg" Sitting War
Hitler waiting for the Spring to launch offensive
The Nazis Strike
April 1940: Hitler invades Denmark & Norway
May 1940: Hitler invades Belgium, Netherlands & France
May 15: Holland surrenders
May 28: Belgium surrenders
June 10: Norway surrenders
Blitzkrieg warfare very effective
British troops retreat to Dunkirk on the coast
June 14: French government flees Paris
June 22: France surrenders to Germany
British, French & Belgian soldiers retreat to the coast at Dunkirk
900 British ships sail across the Chanel to rescue the soldiers
May 26 - June 4: Operation Dynamo
340,000 rescued
Small victory, keep up morale despite the overall defeat
Soldiers at Dunkirk
German Troops Enter Paris
Great Britain Stands Alone
Winston Churchill
British Prime Minister
Hitler Targets England
Germany will need to invade England: Operation Sea Lion
Germany must weaken England's Navy, Airforce & Supply Lines
Battle of the Atlantic
U-Boats to destroy British supply ships and weaken British Navy
Stop supplies & materials from reaching England
1939 : 222 ships sunk (114 by submarine)
1940 : 1059 ships sunk (471 by submarine)
1941 : 1328 ships sunk (432 by submarine)
1942 : 1661 ships sunk (1159 by submarine)
1943 : 597 ships sunk (463 by submarine)
1944 : 247 ships sunk (132 by submarine)
1945 : 105 ships sunk (56 by submarine)
Allied Ship Losses
Battle of Britain
July 1940: German Luftwaffe begins bombing of England
R.A.F.: Royal Air Force defends the skys over England
Outnumbered by Luftwaffe
British have advantage of RADAR & better planes
Defeats the Luftwaffe
Hitler changes to plans to bomb civilians, break the spirits of the British people
British RAF
The London Blitz
German Luftwaffe begins bombing cities in England
Focus on London
Sept 1940 bombings begin
Last 76 straight nights
Blitz fails to break the British spirits
Hitler postpones invasion of England
Images of the Blitz
German Bomber over London
People spent nights in bomb shelters and subway stations
Churchill Tours London
Hitler Invades Russia
June 22, 1941
Operation Barbarossa
3 million German troops invade Soviet Union
“The Red Army, the Red Navy, and all citizens of the Soviet Union must defend every inch of Soviet soil, must fight to the last drop of blood for our towns and villages, must display the daring, initiative and mental alertness characteristic of our people.”
United States Provides Aid
Aid To Great Britain
England in desperate need of supplies & war materials
March 1941: Roosevelt passes Lend-Lease Act
US will "loan" war materials to any nation at war with the Axis Powers
$50 billion in aid ($31 billion to England)
Where did the aid go?
FDR & Churchill Meet
Roosevelt & Churchill meet off the coast of Newfoundland
Discuss the war
Plan for a postwar Europe
Atlantic Charter: agree on what will happen when the war is over
Similar to Wilson's 14 Points from WWI
US Aids China
US provided military aid to China against Japan
US wants to stop Japan from expanding too far into the Pacific
September 1940: Japan invades Indochina
US creates an embargo on Japan, stop trading with Japan(including all OIL & freeze all financial assets ($)
Japan begins planning attack on US
Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor
The Plan
Japanese navy will sail to Hawaii
Launch air attack on US fleet at Pearl Harbor
Destroy US naval power in the Pacific
MUST destroy aircraft carriers & fuel reserves
The Target
The Attack
December 7, 1941, Sunday morning
Japanese carriers launch 2 waves of fighter planes
Fly to Pearl Harbor
Bomb ships along Battle Ship row
Bomb airfields & radio stations
The Damage
2,300 Americans killed 1,100 wounded
18 ships sunk or damaged including 8 battleships
1,117 men killed on the USS Arizona
350 aircraft destroyed
Japanese miss aircraft carriers & fuel reserves
Pearl Harbor Memorial
America At War With The Axis Powers
December 8, 1941President Roosevelt asks Congress for a declaration of war against Japan
Two days later germany & Italy declare war on the US
US joins Great Britain as a member of the Allied Powers
America will now fight a two-theater war
Pacific Theater: Japan

European Theater: Germany & Italy
Japan Strikes in the Pacific
Pearl Harbor not the only Japanese attack
Japanese attack the Philippine Islands, Guam, Midway Island, Wake Island
Japan attacks British possessions
US & British forces defeated by the Japanese
Japan expands its empire into the Asia & the Pacific
Bataan Death March
April 9, 1942: US & Filipino forces surrender in the Philippines
Japanese march prisoners to POW camps 60 miles away
7,000 - 10,000 died on the march
Prisoners were beaten, killed, denied water
Bataan Death March used as propaganda against the Japanese
Images of the March
"The hours dragged by and, as we knew they must. The drop-outs began. It seemed that a great many of the prisoners reached the end of their endurance at about the same time. They went down by twos and threes. Usually, they made an effort to rise. I never can forget their groans and strangled breathing as they tried to get up. Some succeeded. Others lay lifelessly where they had fallen." - Lt. Colonel William Dyess
By 1942 Japan controlled much of Southeast Asia and the Pacific west of Hawaii.
America Strikes Back
Japan had been on the offensive & had been victorious for 5 months
The US needed a victory
Lt. Col. James Doolittle organizes a bombing raid on Japan
Few believed it could be done
Doolittle modified 16 B25 bombers for a raid on Tokyo, Japan
April 12, 1942: USS Hornet sails 600 miles from Japan
Doolittle's Raiders take-off & head to Tokyo
Japanese did not believe American planes could reach the mainland
The raid targets factories & military targets
After dropping their bombs the bombers head to China
The Raids lift American spirits & morale
Japan could be hit
Japanese military pulls planes from the Pacific to defend the island
Cartoons reacting to the Doolittle Raids using strong racist imagery
Doolittle & his Raiders
Doolittle's modified bombers onboard the USS Hornet prior to take-off
President Roosevelt Awarding Doolittle the Medal of Honor
Turning Point Battles

Battle of the Coral Sea: May 1942
Japan wanted to expand south towards New Guinea, establish bases & launch attacks on Australia to prepare for a possible invasion
1st naval battle in history fought between aircraft carriers launching planes
Neither side's naval vessels fought each other
The Outcome
US fleet able to stop Japan's advance
Morale boost for the US
US loses aircraft carrier USS Lexington (sunk) & USS Yorktown (heavily damaged)
Japan will not expand any further south
USS Lexington
Battle of Midway
Japanese plan to attack Midway Island
Whoever controls Midway controls the Pacific
US had broken the Japanese code
US prepared for attack
June 3-6, 1942
US planes destroy & sink 4 Japanese carriers
Stop Japanese into the Pacific
America will now go on the offensive
Video on the Sinking of the Japanese Carriers at Midway
America Goes Island Hopping
Battle of Gudalcanal Canal
1st Major US Offensive
June 1942 - Feb 1943
Have to invade and conquer islands on the way to Japan
Difficult fighting on the islands
Japanese troops dug into defensive positions
Japanese trooops will not surrender
Difficult environment, jungle terrain
Island Hopping
US will have to move slowly towards Japan
Take control of strategic islands
Cut off islands and supplies to Japanese troops, navy
Use captured islands as bases to launch attacks on other islands and the Japanese mainland
"Squeeze" Japanese forces back out of the Pacific
Difficult fighting
Turning Point Battles

Battle of El Alamein
Allies must gain control of North Africa & Protect the Suez Canal
Allies led by Gen Bernard Montgomery
Axis led by Gen Erwin Rommel
Allies win and drive Germany's Afrika Korp out of Africa
North Africa will be used as the launching area for the Allied invasion of Sicily & then Italy
Invade Europe from the south
Battle of Stalingrad
September 1942
Hitler orders the city to be taken at any cost
German army of 1 million men surrounds the city
Russian army & civilians defend the city
Intense urban warfare
Brutal conditions for both sides
Germans take most of the city but can not hold
Russians launch counter attack

"Surrender is forbidden. 6 Army will hold their positions to the last man and the last round and by their heroic endurance will make an unforgettable contribution towards the establishment of a defensive front and the salvation of the Western world."

Hitler's communication with von Paulus.
"Not one step backward"

- Stalin's message to the Russian people
German army begins to surrender
91,000 surrender to the Russians
German Army begins the slow retreat out of Russia

Bodies of German Soldiers
Propaganda cartoon showing the strength of the Russian Army, standing up to such an overwhelming German attack
Invasion of France is Planned
Allies need to open another front in Europe
Allied troops in Itlay
Russian troops moving west
Open a new front in France
Operation Overlord: Allied invasion of Northern France
Hitler Speech to the Party
Japan, Italy, and Germany
Agree to support each other against U.S.
U.S. and England ban the sale of oil to Japan
Tripartite Pact Signed(1940)
Prime Minister Hideki Tojo
No Negotiation
Direct Attack
Two Different Approaches
Direct Attack
Japan’s Decision
Tripartite Pact
Japan Bombs and Kills over 200,000 people in China
U.S. wants to protect China(Open Door Policy)
U.S. forbids the sale of certain items to Japan
Capture of Nanking(Cont)
Emperor Hirohito
Upset many in Japan military by negotiating
Negotiation Before Attack
Capture of Nanking-1937
Steps Leading Up
to Pearl Harbor
Officially form the Axis Powers in 1940
Full transcript