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Australia and the World
Transcript of Australia and the World
Lecture 1: Introduction & Australia before 1788
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2. Have you completed Global History?
1. Have you completed Australian Studies?
Australia & the World
Doesn't mean you can't take the unit without them...but does mean that consciously building on and connecting with this previous knowledge makes this unit richer.
Discussion: What have you learnt until now that you think might be useful context for Australia & the World?
Whether in previous units, or in other places
Australia and the World?
Relationship between Australia & the world in the past, and in the present
- What is Australia in relation to the rest of the world?
- Where is Australia going in relation to the rest of the world?
Why this unit?
People are the way they are because of their society & their history.
Teachers, counsellors - anyone working with people must understand the society and their history shaping them.
What was Australia before 1788?
To answer this question:
Archeology, Geology, Paleontology, Botany, Zoology
1. Formation of the continent & first human migrations
2. Differing conceptions of the Great South Land
3. European exploration, settlement & claims under "Terra Nullius"
What was Australia before 1788?
300-180 million years ago
Origins of humanity:
Geneticists & paloanthropologists agree that humans evolved from a common primate ancestor to modern day Chimpanzees about 500.00 years ago.
Modern humans left Africa ca 80.000 years ago
Migrations out of Africa began ca 200.000 years ago
Ancestors of modern humans reached the Wallace line, but didn't cross over to New Guinea and Australia....
Humans crossed the Wallace line around 50.000 years ago
Moved down the continent, to almost every corner
End to Part I: Formation of the continent & first human migrations
What was significant about the journey of the First Australians?
Differing conceptions of the "Great South Land"
In Global History you learnt about the history of European imperialism across the world.
Because history is usually written by those in power, our understanding of the past is heavily Eurocentric
European concepts of "The Great South Land"
Giovanni Botero (c. 1544 – 1617)
Crates of Mallus (B.C. 150)
Land like Europe, but with reverse climate
Europeans began to explore the world
ex. Marco Polo, travelled to Asia overland (1264-69)
They realised the east was wealthy and interesting.
Their pursuit of eastern wealth led them in closer proximity to australia
India & China
concept of the great south land
Indian Ocean trade network
While the big imperial states in Asia didn't seem to make it to Australia, Macassan fishermen visited australia from the 1600s.
Local communities participated in the trepang production, and trade, and sometimes travelled back to indonesia with the fishermen.
End to Part II: Foreign Conceptions of the Great South Land
a) How did Europeans think of the “Great Southern Land” during ancient and medieval times?
b) What was the relationship between the Australian communities, and those of Asia in ancient and medieval times?
European interests in the region are growing:
wonky, weird, dangerous, unknown place
Economically & strategically valuable?
In Global History:
European imperial expansion
Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch ships were charting the region, and from the 1500s, some came back to Europe with reports of a large continent in the Sourthern seas.
First European map of Australia?
Great Fire of Lisbon (1755)
Ruined archives that might have told us more....
Portuguese map (1530)
Pedro de Quiros (1605)
Luis de Torres
Neither of these guys left reporta to suggest they'd seen Australia, however.
The first World Atlas
Gerrad de Jode
The Dutch Empire building in Indonesia meant that many ships passed very close by. In 1616 Dirk Hartog accidentally bumped into Western Australia
The Dutch goverment became curious, and sponsored this guy's exploration of the area....
In the late 1600s:
Britain finally got its act together and joined the race
First the British government sent scientists...
William Dampier in 1699
James Cook in 1770
Transit of Venus
And then, in 1788, they sent the First Fleet...
Yes - a watershed moment for both the people who were already here, and for those who arrived on the fleet.
Albeit in very different ways.
50.000 years ago human communities overcame unprecedented adversity to get to Australia.
They entered from the north...
Fanned out across Australia...
Further to the north, Europeans dreamed up fairy tales about their country - fairy tales that began to matter a whole lot more once Europeans learnt to sail ships across the Pacific....
Eventually some of them established relationships with their neigbours to the north: working together, trading, intermarrying.
Closer look at the the society that dominated the Australian continent for most of its history.
We will make the argument that the first communities to settle here kept their country far from an empty, untouched land - far from a "Terra Nullius"