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Transcript of information processing
Information processing (IP) is a way of studying cognition that sees “the individual as a processor of information, in much the same way that a computer takes in information and follows a program to produce an output.” (McLeod, 2008).
IP theories began to emerge in the 1940's & 50's a time when computational devices were being actively developed
signaled a shift away from behaviorism to internal cognitive processes & memory
human mind = computer analogy
influenced several fields: psychology, education, engineering and the design of technologies and devices
Levels of Processing
(Craik and Lockhart, 1972)
IP "is not the name of a single theory; it is a generic name applied to theoretical perspectives dealing with the sequence and execution of cognitive events'' (Schunk, 2004).
Multi-Store Model of memory
(Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968)
(based on the work of Atkinson & Shiffrin)
HIP and Other Adaptations
integrates commonly agreed upon components and processes that have been most substantiated by research
(FAA Human Information Processing - adapted from Wickens, 1992)
Basic Information Processing System
two way flow of information
humans are genetically prepped for processing & organizing information in specific ways
an executive function oversees this processing
'Chunking' & TOTE Theory
Miller's early work contributed 2 important factors to the
development of IP theories
short-term memory can
hold 5-9 chunks of info
(7 + or - 2)
George A Miller - 'Chunking' & Tote Theory
Atkinson & Shriffin - Multi-store Model
Craik & Lockheart - Levels of Processing
McClelland & Rumelhart - Parallel Distributed Processing and Connectionism
(Mulitple Theorists) - Stage Theory (based on work of Atkinson & Shiffrin)
Early IP Contributors & Thorists:
& common theoretical
(attention span, 15-30 sec.)
Chunking (organization) can assist in keeping things in STM, for example:
U S A M S N G C S E N B C = USA MSN GCSE NBC
SONFARMANSOFA = SON FAR MAN SOFA
information can be chunked in many useful ways
to assist memory, recall or various tasks
That's the gist of it!
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Step # 1
The senses (how we experience the world)
the senses relay electrical energy to the brain sight, sound, smell, touch, taste
Sensory memory lasts 0.5 - 3.0 seconds
when attention is given to sensory stimuli it
can be transferred to the short term memory (STM)
As you can see, there are different models of information processing theory.
The most widely accepted model is 'Stage Theory' where information
processed and stored
in 3 stages...
Attention (process to STM)
Repetition (maintaining in STM)
Elaboration (processing to LTM)
Parallel Distributed Processing
(McClelland & Rumelhart, 1986-current)
Memory is what happens as a result of processing information. Deep processing requires
an artificial neural network activation approach
learner must attend to stimulus
stimulus not attended to is not passed on to the STM
stimulus information must be combined with info stored in LTM
If this occurs, the information is then passed into STM
There are 3 main concepts for getting information into STM:
provide novel stimulus
activate known patterns
units of information should be broken down by importance
2 Major concepts for retaining info in STM:
organization (component, sequential, relevance, and transitional)
repetition (maintenance up to 20 mins.)
Two processes most likely to pass information from STM to LTM:
distributed practice (periodic review)
IP models are also used and adapted (outside of teaching) to facilitate the design, use and evaluation of technologies. These often focus on representation of knowledge, 'cognitive load' and usability.
B. Kyle ETEC 512