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FGM

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by

Aatiqiha Abdin

on 13 January 2014

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Transcript of FGM

FGM
Female
Genital
Mutilation
What is FGM?
WHO's Definition
"all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external
female genitalia
, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons" (WHO)
FGM is also referred to as
“female genital cutting”
(WHO) and
“female circumcision.”
(WHO)
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/
Types of FGM
Four Types
Type I
Type II
Type III
Type IV
Clitoridectomy
Excision
Others
Infibulation
partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora .
the full elimination of the clitoris and labia minora
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/
http://www.circumstitions.com/FGM-defined.html
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/
Who
When is carried out?
Why it occurs
Where it occurs
Health Consequences
Human Rights
Religion or culture?
Waris Dirie
References
FGM occurs all around the world
FGM occurs in places where its illegal
23,000 females go through this process in the UK each year

Around the World
Africa
Around 101 million females around the age 10+ have been through this process
http://www.visuallightbox.com
http://www.dofeve.org/about-fgm.html
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/
http://nowscape.com/islam/FGM-Africa1.htm
The complete or fractional amputation of the clitoris
The main factor that triggers FGM to occur is due to family pressure.
Tradition
Sexuality and Fertility
Religion
There are communities where FGM has been prevalent for many years and each girl a part of that community is forced to go through this process.

it is a norm
girls are excluded if they don't go through the process
the guardians of the females believe it is the right thing to do
http://www.dofeve.org/about-fgm.html
People who believe in this practice think that FGM needs to occur in order for a woman to conceive.
Not true
FGM provides no benefits
Specific individuals believe that FGM is a religious practice and that is why girls are forced to go through this practice.
Short-term
Physical Effects
Psychological Effects
Depression
Anxiety
Behavior/Attitude
Nightmares
Panic Attacks
No pleasure during intercourse
Hygienic issues
PAIN
Infection
Pain
Haemorrhage
Urine withholding
issues with menstruation
issues with urinating
issues during pregnancy
Religion
Culture
In conclusion
According to many religions, they present the lens that your body is
"a temple of God"
(DofEve)

FGM is detrimental
Religion is
not
the
foundation
of FGM
http://www.dofeve.org/about-fgm.html
Female genital mutilation is not practice based on religion but it is more of a cultural practice (amongst communities).
Premarital virginity and marital fidelity involve the family honor
If FGM isn't performed, it brings dishonor to the family
FGM controls the sexual pleasure of a female
in many cultures the practice is done right after the birth of the female
The girls do not get a chance to see the "real" them
http://religionnerd.com/2010/11/01/
“Female Genital Mutilation is a fundamental human rights issue with adverse health and social implications… (it) violates the rights of girls and women to bodily integrity and results in perpetuating gender inequality”

http://www.soroptimist-ukpac.org/about/show/357/
About FGM - Daughters of Eve. (n.d.). Daughters of Eve. Retrieved December 09, 2013, from http://www.dofeve.org/about-fgm.html

BMA. (n.d.). Soroptimist UKPAC. Retrieved December 08, 2013, from http://www.soroptimist-ukpac.org/about/show/357/

Female Genital Mutilation: Cultural or Religious Practice? (n.d.). Religion Nerd ReligionNerdcom RSS. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from http://religionnerd.com/2010/11/01/female-genital-mutilation-–-cultural-or-religious-practice/

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). (n.d.). FORWARD. Retrieved December 11, 2013, from http://www.forwarduk.org.uk/key-issues/fgm

Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt. (2012, February 27). YouTube. Retrieved December 11, 2013, from

Paper presented at the Sub-regional Conference on Female Genital Mutilation, based on the "Impact of FGM on Women's Health". (n.d.). Home Page. Retrieved December 11, 2013, from http://www.npwj.org/FGM/Paper-presented-Sub-regional-Conference-Female-Genital-Mutilation-based-“Impact-FGM-Women’s-Heal

WHAT CAN I DO ABOUT FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION? (n.d.). The Campaign. Retrieved December 11, 2013, from http://www.stop-fgm-now.com/what-can-i-do-about-female-genital-mutilation

What is FGM? (n.d.). Desert Flower Foundation RSS. Retrieved December 11, 2013, from http://www.desertflowerfoundation.org/en/what-is-fgm/

Women leading change. (n.d.). Women Leading Change. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from http://womenleadingchange.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/female-genital-mutilation-my-story/

"FGM/C - Definition and Typology." UNFPA Egypt -. UNFPA Egypt, n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2013. <http://egypt.unfpa.org/english/fgmStaticpages/c9e2cb9f-db1d-4008-b190-de0c09a1b9e1/fgm.aspx>.
"I am the happiest girl in the world; my mother and father will not circumcise me"
First World
Example: United Kingdom
These girls are usually 15+ years old
The practice is done in the hospital
Anesthesia
Medication
Third World
occur among young girls during infancy up to the age of 15
the practice is not done in the hospital
Scissors are used
Knives (unclean)
Girls are tied up (their legs)
First World
Third World
girls may be taken back to their home countries where FGM can be carried out
takes place during when these girls are off from school, which in UK's case would be the summer holidays
Occurs during the holidays so the girls can be cured
The practice usually occurs from right when the female is born up until the age 15
there is no specific age when the practice takes place
the practice is done by an elderly women who has done this practice to many girls.
the oldest woman of the community

Performed before or after puberty

Who?
What?

Where?

When?
Why?
Everywhere in Egypt
Female Circumcistion (FGM)
Girls (ages 15-49)
Widespread support
Demographic Health Survey in Egypt (EDHS)
-Rate ages 15-17 (91.1%)
-Conducted in 2008
FGM is HARMFUL
Daughters of Eve and Equality now are organizations that fight for women rights and want to abandon this practice
WHO is another organization that is dedicated to abandon FGM
Social Change
DISCUSSION
Long Term
Local ~ National ~Global
FGM shown as a crime?
http://www.forwarduk.org.uk/key-issues/fgm


http://www.dofeve.org/about-fgm.html

http://www.dofeve.org/about-fgm.html
http://www.dofeve.org/about-fgm.html
http://www.forwarduk.org.uk/key-issues/fgm
http://www.dofeve.org/about-fgm.html
http://www.dofeve.org/about-fgm.html
Laws passed
Those against
~In Africa, 13 countries have implemented legislation
~"Center for Reproductive Right
>16 countries with criminal legislation against FGM
~There are communities where FGM as been prevalent for many generations.
These communities are strongly against the abandonment of FGM.

"International Day of Zero Tolerance of Female Genital Mutilation
February 8
FGM in Egypt
Government Impacts
The Goal
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/
http://reproductiverights.org/
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/
http://www.dofeve.org/
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