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Chapter 21 Hair Coloring

Cosmetology
by

Jennifer De Soto-Fitzgerald

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 21 Hair Coloring

Chapter 21

Haircoloring You have completed one unit of study toward course completion. Congratulations! Summary and Review (continued) Explain the action of hair lighteners.
What is the procedure for a virgin, single-process color service?
What are the two processes involved in double-process haircoloring?
Name and describe the various forms of hair lightener.
What is the purpose of toner and when is it used? Summary and Review (continued) How does hydrogen peroxide developer work in a haircolor formula?
What are the four key questions to ask when formulating a haircolor?
Why is a patch test useful in haircoloring?
What is a preliminary strand test and why is it used? Practical Procedures (continued) Single-Process Color on Virgin Hair
Permanent Single-Process Retouch with Glaze
Lightening Virgin Hair
Toner Application
Special Effects Hair Coloring with Foil (Full Head) Pre-Service Procedure
Post-Service Procedure
Patch Test Procedure
Preliminary Strand Test
Temporary Haircolor
Semipermanent Haircolor Practical Procedures Administer patch test.
Do not apply if abrasions are present.
Do not apply if metallic or compound tint is present.
Do not brush hair prior to service.
Read and follow all manufacturer’s directions. Safety Precautions Tips for Restoring Blond to Natural (continued) Apply no-lift, deposit-only glaze with 1 oz level 8 light neutral blond and 1 oz level 9 very light blond red-orange base. Process process 20 minutes.
Do not apply to new growth.
Mix a no-lift, deposit-only glaze with 1-1/2 oz level 6 dark neutral blond and 1/2 oz level 4 light brown gold base. Refresh faded color: Apply a demipermanent haircolor within two levels of formula and process for up to 10 minutes.
Green cast: Remove buildup and use color to neutralize unwanted color.
Overall color is too light: Apply a no-lift, deposit-only color that is one to two levels darker.
Overall color is too dark: Apply a haircolor remover for 10 minutes and check. Common Haircolor Solutions Watch out for underlying, unwanted warm tones when lightening from brown to blond.
Use level 7 or darker to cover gray.
Get light pale blond by double-processing.
If using high lift blonds to only 5 levels, results may be warm or brassy.
If highlights become too blond, add lowlights for more natural color. Tips for Blonds Use red-orange base to create warm, coppery reds.
Use red-violet for hot, fiery reds.
Use no-lift, deposit-only color to refresh.
If gray is present, add 1/2 to 1 oz of a natural color.
Refresh with a soap cap to brighten color. Tips for Redheads Select to replace missing primary color.
Apply directly to hair or mix with haircolor and apply to damaged ends. Selecting Correct Color Filler Conditioner fillers: used to recondition damaged, overly porous hair
Color fillers: used to equalize porosity and deposit color in one application Fillers Rough texture
Overporous condition
Brittle and dry to touch
Susceptible to breakage
No elasticity
Spongy and matted when wet
Color fading or absorbing too rapidly Damaged Hair Characteristics Use 20 volume developer.
Process color for full 45 minutes.
Add neutral to formula.
If 25 percent gray, use 25 percent neutral.
If 50 percent gray, use 50 percent neutral.
If 75 percent gray, use 75 percent neutral. Tips for Gray Coverage Level 9 or lighter may not give complete coverage.
Level 7 or darker can be used to create pastel and blond tones.
For 80 percent to 100 percent natural gray, blond is more flattering than darker tones.
Formulating for Gray Hair Used when slight change in color is desired
Used when hair processes rapidly
Used to highlight natural color in a single application Highlighting Shampoos This technique involves coloring selected strands by slicing or weaving out sections, placing them on foil or plastic wrap, or paper applying lightener or permanent haircolor, and sealing them in the wrap. Foil Technique Lighten with powder (off-the-scalp) lightener.
Begin in most resistant area.
Cover while processing.
Rinse thoroughly and shampoo.
Towel-blot and condition.
Tone if desired. Cap Strategies Called lowlighting
Some strands colored darker than natural
Creates dimension Reverse Highlighting Color some strands lighter than natural color
Adds variety of lighter shades and illusion of depth
Does not contrast strongly with natural color
Light colors cause the light to advance toward the eye, to appear larger, and to make details more visible. Highlighting Lighten new growth first.
Cover with plastic cap Lightener Retouch and Using Toners Watch for discoloration or breakage.
Reconditioning may be required.
Increased strength or processing time may be required.
Patch test is required 24 to 48 hours in advance of application. Preliminary Strand Test Not applied to scalp
Strong enough for blonding
Called quick lighteners
Contain oxygen-releasing boosters
Dry out more quickly than other lighteners
Expand and spread out during processing Powdered Off-the-Scalp Lighteners Mildest
Appropriate for one to two levels of lift
Give some protection to hair and scalp
More control from thickeners
Help prevent overlapping On-the-Scalp Lighteners Applicator bottle: Bottle must be large enough for color and developer; mix according to manufacturer’s directions.
Brush and bowl: Use nonmetallic bowl. Pour developer first, then product; blend thoroughly. Mixing Permanent Haircolor What is natural level?
What are desired level and tone?
Are contributing pigments revealed?
What colors should be mixed? Four Basic Questions Release Statement Consultation (continued) Gain approval from client.
Start haircolor service.
Educate client regarding home-care maintenance.
Complete record card. Book 15 minutes of additional time.
Have client fill out record card.
Conduct in proper lighting.
Look at client directly.
Recommend two options.
Be honest. Consultation Traditional semipermanent, demipermanent, and permanent haircolor products that are used primarily on prelightened hair to achieve pale and delicate colors Toners The Ten Degrees of
Natural Hair Decolorization Lighten prior to color application
Lighten to a desired shade
Lighten and brighten existing shade
Lighten only certain parts of hair
Lighten dark natural or color-treated levels Lighteners From leaves or bark of plants
No lightening
Limited shade range
Professional products cannot be applied over Natural Haircolor Deposits color; does not lift
Requires high pH for decolorization
Ideal for:
– Introducing hair color services
– Blending or covering gray
– Refresh faded color
– Color corrections Demipermanents Categories of Haircolor A system for understanding color relationships. When combining colors, you will always get the same result from the same combination.
Equal parts of red and blue make violet.
Equal parts of blue and yellow make green.
Equal parts of red and yellow make orange. Law of Color Determining Percentage of Gray Hair The loss of pigment increases with age. Most people retain a certain percentage of pigmented hair. Gray hair can be solid or blended and requires special attention during haircoloring. Gray Hair Low porosity – tight cuticle, resistant hair
Average porosity – cuticle slightly raised; average time
High porosity – cuticle lifted; quicker processing time
Test for porosity – finger and thumb test Types of Porosity Number of hairs per square inch
Refers to hair thickness Density Cover up or blend gray hair
Enhance existing hair color
Create a fashion statement or statement of self expression
Correct unwanted tones
Accentuate a particular haircut Reasons for Coloring Hair Haircolor: a professional, industry-coined term referring to products and services for artificially coloring the hair
Hair color: refers to the natural color of the hair Haircolor vs. Hair color Objectives (continued) Define what a preliminary strand test is and explain why it is used.
List and describe the procedure for a virgin single-process color service.
Understand the two processes involved in double-process haircoloring.
Describe the various forms of hair lightener. Objectives (continued) Explain the role of hydrogen peroxide in a haircolor formula.
Explain the action of hair lighteners.
List the four key questions to ask when formulating a haircolor.
Understand why a patch test is useful in haircoloring. Objectives (continued)
Identify primary, secondary, and tertiary colors.
Know what role tone and intensity play in haircolor.
List and describe the categories of haircolor. “The only thing that makes life possible is permanent, intolerable uncertainty: not knowing what comes next.”

– Ursula K. Le Guin Summary and Review (continued) What are three commonly used methods for highlighting? Describe each.
List seven tips for achieving gray coverage.
List the rules of color correction.
List five safety precautions to follow during haircoloring. Summary and Review (continued) What are levels? What does the level system help determine when formulating haircolor?
Name the primary, secondary, and tertiary colors.
What is the role of tone and intensity in haircolor?
Describe each category of haircolor. Why do people color their hair?
How does the hair’s porosity affect haircolor?
How many types of melanin are found in hair? Describe each. Summary and Review Safety Precautions (continued) Do not overlap product during retouch.
Use mild, acid-balanced shampoo.
Always wash hands before and after serving each client. Safety Precautions (continued) Use disinfected applicators and tools.
Drape properly.
Perform strand test.
Use glass or plastic bowl or plastic bottle.
Wear protective gloves.
Do not let color get in eyes. Tips for Restoring Blond to Natural (continued) If level 8 light violet blond at base, use 1-1/2 oz level 8 light neutral blond with 1/2 oz level 6 dark golden blond.
Apply chosen formula, starting where most overlightened.
Work color through all hair.
Process up to 20 minutes, checking every 5 minutes, and then reevaluate. If level 6, soften new growth with level 6 violet base and 20 volume developer. Process 20 minutes.
If level 7, soften new growth with level 8 light blond-violet base and 20 volume developer. Process 20 minutes. Tips for Restoring Blond
to Natural Use cool blue base to avoid brassy tones.
Do not lighten more than two levels above natural color to avoid brassy tones.
Add 1 oz of natural color to cover gray.
Natural highlights should be deep or caramel colored. Tips for Brunettes Deposit color to faded ends
Help hair hold color
Prevent streaking and dull appearance
Prevent off-color results
Produce more uniform color
Produce more uniform color when coloring hair back to its natural color Advantages of Color Fillers Use penetrating conditioner.
Normalize pH with finishing rinse.
Postpone further chemical services.
Perform between-service conditioning.
Recommend retail products for home maintenance. Damaged Hair Treatments Do not panic.
Determine true problem.
Determine cause of problem.
Develop a solution.
Take one step at a time.
Never guarantee results.
Always strand-test for accuracy. Rules for Effective Color Correction Apply presoftener to resistant area.
Process 15 minutes.
Refer to manufacturer’s directions.
Blot presoftener off with towel.
Apply final color formula.
Process according to instructions. Presoftening Client personality
Personal preferences
Amount and location of gray hair More Gray Hair Considerations Formulating for Gray Hair (continued) Smoking
Medication
Sun exposure
Some styling aids Yellow Discoloration Causes Decolorize to desired level.
Consider porosity and pigmentation.
Avoid affecting untreated hair.

Use traditional semipermanent color.
Use no-lift, deposit-only demipermanent color that will not cause additional lightening. Toning Highlighted and
Dimensionally Colored Hair Foil Technique (continued) Slicing: involves making a straight part at scalp, positioning a narrow 1/8-inch section of hair over foil, and applying lightener or color This technique involves pulling clean strands of hair through a perforated cap with a thin plastic or metal hook. The number of strands pulled through the cap determines the degree of highlighting achieved. Cap Technique Darker hair has more melanin and takes longer to lighten.
Porosity influences timing.
Tone influences timing.
Strength of product influences timing.
Heat leads to quicker lightening. Time Factors for Processing Oil
– On-the-scalp lightener
Cream
– On-the-scalp lightener
Powder
– Off-the-scalp lightener
Activators: increase lightening ability Three Types of Lighteners Hair Lightening – bleaching or decolorizing.
Double-process high-lift coloring – two step blonding.
Prelightening – applied the same as hair lightening. Double-Process Haircolor The combination of the shade selected and the volume of hydrogen peroxide determines the deposit and lifting ability of a haircolor. Deposit and Lifting Ability Client Service Record Card Hair will become mushy.
Hair will lose elasticity.
Hair will be harsh and brittle when dry.
Hair will often suffer breakage.
Hair will often not accept toner. Lifting Past Pale Yellow Decolorize to appropriate level.
Apply new color. Contributing Pigment Hydrogen Peroxide Volume
and Uses Oxidizing agents or catalysts
pH between 2.5 and 4.5
H2O2 most common
Volume
Lower volume, less lift
Higher volume, greater lift Hydrogen Peroxide Developers Gradual haircolors, also known as metallic haircolors, contain metal salts that change hair color gradually by progressive buildup and exposure to air, creating a dull, metallic appearance. Gradual Haircolor Permanent Haircolor Action Used to match and lighten hair, and to cover gray hair
Contains ammonia, oxidative tints, and peroxide
Contains aniline derivatives
Combine with H2O2 to form larger molecules
Removes natural pigment while adding artificial color
Best to cover gray Permanent Haircolor Does not penetrate cuticle layer
Coats hair shaft
Neutralizes unwanted tones
Available in variety of colors and products Temporary Color Tone or hue: balance of color
Warm: golden, orange, red, yellow
Cool: blue, green, violet
Intensity: strength of color tone Tone or Hue Blue and orange
Red and green
Yellow and violet Complementary Colors Blue-green
Blue-violet
Red-orange
Yellow-orange
Yellow-green Tertiary Colors Blue
Red
Yellow Primary Colors Color is the property of objects that depends on the light they reflect. It is perceived as red, green, blue, or other shades.
Base color is the predominant tone of a color. Color Theory Melanin in the cortex
Eumelanin: gives black and brown color
Pheomelanin: gives blond and red colors
Mixed melanin: contains both eumelanin and pheomelanin
Contributing pigment: also known as undertone Natural Hair Color The ability of the hair to absorb moisture
Porous hair accepts haircolor faster and permits a darker color than less-porous hair. Porosity Cuticle: outermost layer that contributes 20 percent of overall strength
Cortex: middle layer that contributes 80 percent of overall strength
Medulla: innermost layer (sometimes absent) Hair Structure The hair structure affects the quality and ultimate success of the haircolor service.
The structure of the hair and the desired results determine which haircolor product to use. Hair Facts Objectives (continued) Understand the purpose and use of toners.
Name and describe the three common methods for highlighting.
Know how to properly cover gray hair.
Know the rules of color correction.
Know the safety precautions to follow during haircoloring. List the reasons people color their hair.
Explain how the hair’s porosity affects haircolor.
Understand the types of melanin found in hair.
Define and identify levels and their role in formulating haircolor. Objectives Gray hair can turn orange if lightener is not processed long enough. Gray Hair Challenges Baliage: involves painting product onto clean, styled hair; also known as the free-form technique Baliage Foil Technique (continued) Weaving: involves selecting strands that are picked up using a zigzag motion of the comb Lasts through several shampoos
Penetrates hair shaft; stains cuticle layer
Fades with each shampoo
Non-oxidation
Used out of bottle; requires patch test Traditional Semipermanent Green
Orange
Violet Secondary Colors Take section in crown area.
Match swatches.
Compare strand to determine level. Identifying Natural Level Unit of measurement
Identifies lightness or darkness
Arranged on scale of 1 to 10
1 being darkest
10 being lightest Level System Coarse: large hair-strand diameter.
Medium: medium hair-strand diameter.
Fine: small hair-strand diameter. Texture Cap Technique
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