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Copy of HISTORY OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

PRE-SPANISH ERA TO PRESENT PERIOD
by

ethelle cambel

on 24 May 2013

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Transcript of Copy of HISTORY OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

HISTORY OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM FROM THE PRE-SPANISH TO THE PRESENT, THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF THE PHILIPPINES HAS UNDERGONE SEVERAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT. EDUCATION DURING THE PRE-SPANISH PERIOD AIMS FOR SURVIVAL AND CONFORMITY
FOR ENCULTURATION TRAINING TEACHING METHODS TEACHING CONTENT Evidences •Domestic chores and practical honing
•Theoretical/ moral and spiritual awakening "TELL ME" AND "SHOW" ME OBSERVATION AND IMITATION INDOCTRATION •Broad, indefinite, unwritten
•Unstructured/ incidental EDUCATION DURING THE SPANISH ERA AIMS AGENCIES The Royal decree of 1555 mandated these goals of Spanish education in the country; Indoctrination of Christianity Promotion of the Spanish language Imposition of Spanish Culture o the education of the Filipino was focused mainly on the learning of the Christian Doctrine. It was a simple catechism, the doctrina, not the same as Christian education in Europe. o the Augustinians, Franciscans, Dominicans, and Jesuits introduced the parochial school concept practiced in Europe during the Dark Ages. o Colegio de San Ignacio by the Jesuits in 1598 in Manila was tha first colegio o the Dominicans put up the Colegio de San Rosario which later became Colegio de Santo Tomas now the Pontifical University of Santo Tomas.

o the Beaterio de San Isabel was founded in 1632 and became the oldest existing school for girls

o the Beatrio de San Potenciana in 1594 was the first beatrio for girls TEACHING METHODS Dictation Memorization Other techniques such as : techniques such as moro-moro cenaculo and other theatrical performances THE MEDIA OF INSTRUCTIONS Spanish Latin Types of Education Authoritarian Teacher-dominated Subject centered Imposition of
severe discipline Outstanding Contributions if the Spanish Friars to Philippine Education oUpliftment of the Phillippine Education through Royal Decree of 1863 oLinguistics “Arte y Vocabulario de Lengua Tagala” by Juan Quihones in 1582 was the first Tagalog grammar and dictionary in the country EDUCATION DURING THE AMERICAN ERA AIM • To promote democratic ideals and way of life AGENCIES METHOD Outstanding contributions of the Americans to the Philippine Education Legal Mandate • A system of free and compulsory elementary education (Malolos Constitution) •Training was done through schools (private and secular) – Thomasites • The University of the Philippines – first state school of university status • Philippine education was influenced by the philosophy of John Dewey •Democratic way of teaching • Religious freedom •Development of intelligence, right attitudes and habits of children • Citizenship • Democratic ideal as a philosophy • Guidance and consultancy •“Benevolent Policy of Assimilation” • Taft Commission – organize a civil government • Educational Act of 1901 First level – four-year primary and three-year intermediate (seven-year elementary School) Second level – four year high school Third level – first two-year junior college ; later a four year program • 1925 Monroe Survey Commission Act No. 3162 and 3196 Educational reforms Evaluation of teaching and learning • 1927 American Director of the Bureau of Education ; aims for education 1.Training for self-government 2. Provision of English as a common language EDUCATION DURING COMMONWEALTH PERIOD AIMS Legal Mandate To develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience and vocational efficiency To teach the duties of citizenship Executive Order no.17 – Quezon Code of Ethics ; foundation of the emerging philosophy of Philippine education Executive Order no. 134 in 1940 – Tagalog as the basis of a national language Executive order no. 263 in 1940 - required teaching of the Filipino national language Education during the Japanese Era Educational Aims - Making people understand the position of the Phil as a member of the East Asia Co-Properity Sphere.
- Remove the old idea of reliance upon western states particularly the US and Great Britain.
- Elevating the morals of the people giving-up over emphasis on materialism
- Diffusion of elementary education and promotion of vocation education.
- Nippongo was studied in schools including the elementary level. Agencies -Training was done formally through the schools.

-Establishment of agricultural schools and colleges

-Curricular content was centered on values rooted on love for labor; emphasizing vocational education. Legal Mandate -Proclamation No.1
informed the people that authority of the US over the Phil was over and that the Martial Law was to rule.
Made the Phil a member of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Education during the Republic Educational Aims -Democracy is predicted upon the inner worth of the individual.
-Realize capacities best in social contract
-Society is not separated from the individual
-Democracy thrives on change.
Content -Training for occupation
-Promotion of democratic nation building
-A new thrust on community development Legal Mandates - Board of Textbooks was created according to R.A. 139, enacted on June 14, 1947.
- Civil service eligibility of teachers was made permanent pursuant to R.A. 1079.
- Board of National Education (BNE) was formulating educational policies to give direction to Phil education.
- Flag ceremony was made compulsory in all schools including the singing of the National Anthem.
- The life, the works and writings of Jose Rizal shall be included in all levels.
- Elementary education was nationalized. - Promote the socio-economic status of the public school teachers.
o Recruitment qualification of teachers.
o Code of Professional conduct for teachers.
o Health and injury benefit through GSIS
o Teacher’s freedom to form organizations.
o One year study leave after 7 years of continuous teaching.
o One range salary increase upon retirement. - Finance and support provincial schools.
- President Ferdinand Marcos created the Constitutional Convention to be presided over by President Macapagal as mandated by R.A. 6132.
- 1969, President Marcos created the Presidential Commision to Study the Philippine Education (PCSPE). Education during the New Society Educational Aims - Provision for a broad education.
- Manpower training in middle-level skills.
- Development of the high-level professions and evaluation. Aims of Education in the 1973 Constitution - To foster love for country
- Teach the duties of citizenship
- Develop moral character. Agencies - Curricular changes in elementary education
- Integration of values in all learning areas
- Emphasis on mastery learning
- Curricular changes in secondary education
- Increased in time allotment
- Elective offerings as part of curriculum Media of Instruction - Bilingual Education Policy: use of English and Filipino as media of instruction in specific learning areas. Educational Programs Initiated - Project IMPACT- Instructional Management by Parents, Community, and Teachers.
- ISOSA- In School-Off School Approach
- CPS- Continuous Progression Scheme
- PRODED- Program for a Decentralized Educational Development - NCEE- National College Entrance Examination
- NEAT- National Elementary Assessment Test for Grade VI
- NSAT- National Secondary Assessment Test replaces NCEE Legal Mandates - PD No. 1- Integrated Reorganization Plan
- National College Entrance Examination.
- Tertiary honor student are granted civil service eligibility.
- Department Order No. 25 s. 1974 - Professional Board Examination for Teacher (PBET)
- Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 entitled “An Act Providing for the Establishment and Maintenance of an Integrated System of Education.”
o The Act also provide for maintenance of “quality education”. EDUCATION DURING THE
PRESENT PERIOD AIM EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND
CURRICULAR REFORMS FUTURE DIRECTION FOR THE PHILIPPINES—“Education For All” DECS’ Master Plan for Basic Education -Education aimed to promote national development and values education. - Education aimed to promote national development and values education. - Implementation of NESC
(New Elementary School Curriculum).
Its features are: -- Fewer learning areas, emphasis on mastery learning;

-- Focused on the development of 3R’s, and

-- Emphasis on the development of intellectual skills

-- Focus on the development of Humanism and Filipinism in all learning areas. - Implementation of SEDP
(Secondary Education Development Program).
Its features are: o Subjects generally oriented to the development of values;
o Specific competencies;
o Concept-based subject areas, and
o uni-disciplinary treatment of curriculum content. - Implementation of the NSEC
(New Elementary Secondary School Curriculum).
Its features are: o Multi-disciplinary treatment of curriculum content
o Student-centered
o Cognitive-affective manipulative based curriculum
o Values education offered as separate subject area
o Emphasis in Science and Technology
o Uses bilingual policy
o Critical thinking emphasized
o Values Education is offered as a separated subject in the NSEC and integrated in all subject areas both curricula. FUTURE DIRECTION FOR THE PHILIPPINES—“Education For All” EFA- mandated by Presidential proclamation 480. Its components are:
oECCD- Early Childhood Care and Development
oUQPE- Universal Quality of Primary Education oEOI- Eradication of Illiteracy
oCE- Continuing Education The New Society officially ended on February 25, 1986 which culminated the “People Power Revolution” (People Power 1)
A new Constitution was drafted by a 50-meter Constitutional Assembly headed by Justice Cecilia Muñoz-Palma. It was subsequently ratified on Feb. 2, 1987. Section 3, Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution contains these fundamental aims of education: --Shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism
--Foster love of humanity
--Respect for human rights
--Appreciation of the role of the national heroes in the historical development of the country
--Teach the rights and duties of the citizenship --Strengthen ethical and spiritual values
--Develop moral character and personal discipline
--Encourage critical creative thinking
--Broaden scientific and technological knowledge
--Promote vocational efficiency  The government also enacted a new civil service eligibility law, R.A 6850, Feb. 8, 1990.
 A nationwide educational survey spearheaded by the Congressional Commission on Education, popularly known as EDCOM(headed by senator Angara and Congressman Padilla), came up with its report in 1991 with the following recommendations:
o The breakup of DECS into Department of Basic Education (BSE); Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA); and Commission on Higher Education (CHED);
o Establishment of Teacher Education Centers of Excellence (CENTREXES);
o Professionalization of teachers, and
o Technical-vocational reform.  DECS Order No. 6 s. 1998, issued by then Education Secretary Lourdes R. Quisimbing, strengthens the teaching of values in the NESC, NSEC, PRODED (Program for Decentralized Educational Development), and SEDP.
 During the term of President Corazon Aquino, free public secondary education became a reality through the passage of R.A 6655 on May 26, 1988. The pertinent provisions are on the following: o Tuition fee supplement for students in private schools, vocational and technical courses which charge less than P1,500 tuition fee;
o High school textbook assistance;
o Expansion of Educational Service Contracting Scheme;
o Voucher system of the Private Education Student Financial assistance Program (PESFA);
o Scholarship grants to graduating valedictorians and salutatorians;
o Tuition fee supplements to students in private colleges and universities;
o Educational loan fund, and
o College faculty development fund The government also looked at the welfare of poor but deserving students by enacting the Student Employment Law (R.A. 7323), Feb. 3, 1992.
Congress repealed the National College Entrance Examination on June 2, 1994. Along the professionalization of teachers started by P.D. 1001 R.A. 7836 was signed into law on December 16, 1994. It has 3 important provisions:
Creation of the Board for Professional Teachers composed of 5 commissioners under PRC;
Replacement of PBET by LET (Licensure Examination for Teachers);
Transfer of authority of administering the LET from CSC and DECS to the Board of Professional Teachers under PRC, and
The formulation, adoption, and promulgation of the Code of Ethical and Professional standards for Professional Teachers. Testing

Enhance the use of NEAT results for analyzing
Sub-sector performance and improving individual school performance.

Development and use of more varied instruments to measure multi-level intelligence including life skills in classroom teaching. o Environmental Education – integrated into the curriculum specifically in Science.
o Environmental Ethics – Study of man’s moral obligations to preserve the environment and the natural order of things.
o Population Education – Integrated into the curriculum specifically in Science and Social Studies.
o Gender Fairness and Peace education are integrated in Social Studies.
o Global education – education for responsible participation in an interdependent world community EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGY PREDICTIVE SCIENCE ARTS AND RELIGION FOREIGN TRADE BIG POPULATION CENTER MEGALITHIC STRUCTURES GOVERNMENT LAWS WARFARE
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