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SPACE By: Evie Laird
Transcript of SPACE By: Evie Laird
BY EVIE L
Saturn is the second largest planet in the Solar System, after the giant Jupiter. Its mass is 95 times that of the Earth and it has a diameter of 75,098 miles, or 142,750 kilometres. Saturn is 886 million miles, or 1426 million kilometres, from the Sun.
Saturn is the last planet that can be seen without using a telescope or binoculars and the planet was known in the ancient world before telescopes were invented. The rings, however, can only be seen using a telescope. The rings were first seen by Galileo in 1610 through telescope.
Jupiter is the giant of the Solar System, with a mass more than 300 times the mass of the Earth. Jupiter has a diameter of 88,700 miles, or 142,750 kilometres. Jupiter is the fifth planet in order from the Sun and is about 483 million miles, or 777 million kilometres from the Sun. Figure 1 shows the planets in order but the distances are not to scale. The Earth is much closer to the Sun than it is to Jupiter.
Venus is the brightest planet in the Solar System and can be seen even in daylight if you know where to look. When Venus is west of the Sun, she rises before the Sun in the morning and is known as the Morning Star. When she is east of the Sun, she shines in the evening just after sunset and is known as the Evening Star.
The word planet is from the ancient Greek word planetery which means a wanderer, because they move through the stars, which seem to be fixed in the sky. This movement is because the planets are all orbiting around the sun. Venus orbits round the sun in 225 days. The Earth takes 365 days to complete an orbit of the sun. So a year on Venus only lasts for 262 days!
Venus has phases like the moon because the orbit of Venus is between the Earth and the Sun.
The Red Planet, as Mars is often called, is the fourth planet from the sun (Earth is the third). In a lot of ways, Mars looks a lot like our home, though instead of blue oceans and green land, Mars is home to an ever present red tint. This is due to a mineral called iron oxide that is very common on the planet’s surface. However, when you look past the surface differences, these two planets are similar in a lot of ways. Mars is one of only two planets in the solar system to be significantly smaller than Earth. If you looked at the two planets side by side, Earth would be a basketball while Mars is a softball.
The discovery of the planet Neptune was one of the most exciting discoveries in astronomy. Neptune cannot be seen without a large telescope and was first seen in 1846 from the observatory in Berlin.
But, the existence of Neptune had actually been “discovered” a year earlier, in 1845.
The Berlin observatory, following Le Verrier’s calculations giving the possible position of this object, searched for Neptune and found the planet. They named it Neptune after the Roman God of the Sea
Intro to space
Solar System order song
MIKE SMITHS OPINION
How did you feel when the first man stood on the
Scared for them but i was very proud of them in a way. I had very different emotions, It was very insperational but most of all, i couldn't believe it!
Would you like to send someone up again?
No, I definatly wouldn't want anyone on the Moon again. It was there to be done and it was done, leave it's beauty!
It is the only planet in the solar system that has life.
The Earth is the only inner planet (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) to have one large satellite, the Moon. Mars has two very tiny moons. Mercury and Venus have none.
The Earth is fragile. Its surface is split into plates (tectonic plates) which float on a rocky mantle – the layer between the surface of the earth, its crust, and its hot liquid core. The inside of the Earth is active and earthquakes, volcanoes and mountain building takes place along the boundaries of the tectonic plates.
As a result of the Earth’s geological activity (the volcanoes and earthquakes) the surface of the Earth has far fewer craters than the surface of planets such as Mars, Venus and Mercury or the surface of the Moon. The craters have sunk down or been worn away by wind and rain over millions of years.
When viewed from outer space much of the Earth’s surface cannot be seen because of clouds of water vapour. The water vapour makes the Earth, when seen from outside, into a brilliant shining orb, as you can see in Figure 1
Mercury is the planet closest to the Sun. It is not, however, very close, since it is 36 million miles, or 58 million kilometres away from the Sun.
The distances of planets from each other and from the Sun are often measured in Astronomical Units, AU. One AU is the average distance between the Earth and the Sun, 93 million miles, or 150 million kilometres. Using this system of measurement, Mercury is 0.39 AU from the Sun.
Like all the other planets Mercury orbits round the Sun, but its orbit of the Sun lasts for only 88 days. The Earth’s orbit lasts for 365 days and Pluto’s orbit takes 249 YEARS!
Because Mercury goes round the Sun so quickly, the planet was called after the messenger of the Roman Gods. The messenger Mercury, or Hermes as the Greeks knew him, is usually shown as having wings on his helmet or on his sandals
Uranus is one of the “gas giants”, the four outer planets which are entirely composed of gas, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Most of the centre of Uranus is a frozen mass of ammonia and methane, which gives it the blue-green colour. The atmosphere also contains hydrogen and helium. Uranus orbits the Sun lying on its side and takes 84 years to complete one orbit. The Earth goes round the Sun in 365 days, one year. Because Uranus is lying on its side as it orbits the sun, for nearly a quarter of its orbit one pole of the planet is in complete darkness. Uranus takes 17.9 hours to turn once on its own axis, faster than the Earth, which takes 24 hours and gives us the change from day to night.
Uranus was the ancient Greek God of the heavens whose sons were the Giants and Titans. Uranus is the smallest of the four “giants”, but is still several times larger than the Earth. It has a diameter of 29297 miles, or 47, 150 kilometres, compared to the Earth’s diameter of just under 8000 miles, or 12,760 kilometres. Uranus is 1782 million miles, or 2869 million kilometres from the Sun. Figure 1 does not show the distances from the Sun to scale, but Figure 2 lets you have an idea of how much further Uranus is from the Sun than the Earth.
Distances in the Solar system are measured in Astronomical Units (AU), with the Earth’s distance from the Sun being 1 AU. Uranus is 19.2 AU from the Sun. Figure 2 shows the distances of the first seven planets from the Sun, measured in AU.
free fall through space
The Sun is a star found at the center of the Solar System. It makes up around 99.86% of the Solar System’s mass. At around 1,392,000 kilometres (865,000 miles) wide, the Sun’s diameter is about 110 times wider than Earth’s. Around 74% of the Sun’s mass is made up of hydrogen. Helium makes up around 24% while heavier elements such as oxygen, carbon, iron and neon make up the remaining percentage. Light from the Sun reaches Earth in around 8 minutes
The Moon is the Earth’s only natural satellite. A natural satellite is a space body that orbits a planet, a planet like object or an asteroid. It is the fifth largest moon in the Solar System. Learn more about the other moons in the Solar System. The average distance from the Moon to the Earth is 384403 kilometres (238857 miles). The Moon orbits the Earth every 27.3 days. Mons Huygens is the tallest mountain on the Moon, it is 4700 metres tall, just over half the height of Mt Everest (8848m). The Moon rotates on its axis in around the same length of time it takes to orbit the Earth. This means that from Earth we only ever see around 60% of its surface (50% at any one time).