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Australian Identity: Timeline and Exam Revision

An overview of material for the Year 9 English 'Australian Identity' unit.

Matthew McDonald

on 25 November 2012

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Transcript of Australian Identity: Timeline and Exam Revision

Year 9 English AUSTRALIAN IDENTITY Exam Revision The First Fleet 1788 Federation 1901 World War I 1914 World War II 1939 1950 1980 2000 2012 Pre-Colonisation Indigenous Australian Cultures Once a jolly swagman camped by a billabong
Under the shade of a coolibah tree,
And he sang as he watched and waited till his billy boiled:
"You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me."

Waltzing Matilda, waltzing Matilda
You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me
And he sang as he watched and waited till his billy boiled:
"You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me."

Down came a jumbuck to drink at that billabong.
Up jumped the swagman and grabbed him with glee.
And he sang as he shoved that jumbuck in his tucker bag:
"You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me."

Waltzing Matilda, waltzing Matilda
"You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me",
And he sang as he shoved that jumbuck in his tucker bag:
"You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me." Up rode the squatter, mounted on his thoroughbred.
Down came the troopers, one, two, three.
"Whose that jolly jumbuck you've got in your tucker bag?
You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me."

Waltzing Matilda, waltzing Matilda
"You'll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me"
"Whose that jolly jumbuck you've got in your tucker bag?
You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me."

Up jumped the swagman and sprang into the billabong.
"You'll never catch me alive", said he.
And his ghost may be heard as you pass by that billabong:
"You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me."

Waltzing Matilda, waltzing Matilda
"You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me"
And his ghost may be heard as you pass by that billabong:
"You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me." Waltzing Matilda By Banjo Paterson 1895 The Drover's Wife 1867-1922 By Henry Lawson In the short story “The Drover’s Wife,” Henry Lawson acknowledges the hardships of Australian women whose bravery and perseverance is unfairly overlooked... Lawson sheds light on the life of one of these heroic women as she struggles to keep her children safe in the Australian bush. Instead of focusing on the contents of the bush, Lawson focuses primarily on what is lacking. The bush has “no horizon”, “no ranges in the distance” and “no undergrowth”. The scarcity of scenery shows the reader a glimpse of the bleakness and emptiness in the bushwoman’s life... [The house] is crudely made out of slabs of “stringybark” and “round timber”...The rugged house reveals the poor conditions that the drover’s wife must endure every day. Even the weather is dismal as a “thunderstorm comes on, and the wind, rushing through the cracks in the slab wall, threatens to blow out her candle”. She protects the fragile flame of the candle, like her life, against the harshness of her environment. Lawson’s admiration of women is evident in the portrayal of a strong and independent female protagonist. The drover’s wife fights many battles without her husband, and each struggle makes her stronger... She remembers when one of her children died and “she rode nineteen miles for assistance, carrying the dead child”. This must have been a traumatic experience for her, but the bushwoman was able to move on and deal with other obstacles. The drover’s wife recalls the fire that almost destroyed her home. She took on the role of her husband, wearing his trousers while she snuffed out the flames with a bough. She has sacrificed her femininity because “her surroundings are not favourable to the development of the ‘womanly’ or sentimental side of nature”. The only thing to feed her womanhood is the Young Ladies’ Journal. It is a reminder of the dreams she had as a girl that never came to be. The Story: The Environment: The Woman: Many people would not be able to handle the incredible loneliness of life in the bush, but the drover’s wife says she “is used to being left alone. She once lived like this for eighteen months”... She speaks of the “maddening sameness of the stunted trees–that monotony which makes a man long to break away and travel as far as trains can go, and sail as far as ships can sail–and further”. The Loneliness and Monotony: Source: http://chalkntalk.wordpress.com/2009/03/15/notes-on-the-drovers-wife-henry-lawson/ The traditional 'Pastoral' or 'Bush' identity British Colonisation 45,000 BCE: First inhabitants (ancestors of today's indigenous Australians) arrive on the Australian mainland. 1606-1696 CE: Dutch explorers chart the West Coast of Australia, but do not establish colonies. 1770: Captain James Cook charts the East Coast of Australia and claims the land for Britain. Australia is proclaimed 'terra nullius' ('empty land') and claimed by the British Crown.

All regions of Australia are inhabited by approximately 1,000,000 indigenous peoples. When gallant Cook from Albion sail'd,
To trace wide oceans o'er,
True British courage bore him on,
Till he landed on our shore.
Then here he raised Old England's flag,
The standard of the brave;
With all her faults we love her still,
"Brittannia rules the wave!"
In joyful strains then let us sing
"Advance Australia fair!" Verse 2 While other nations of the globe
Behold us from afar,
We'll rise to high renown and shine
Like our glorious southern star;
From England, Scotia, Erin's Isle,
Who come our lot to share,
Let all combine with heart and hand
To advance Australia fair!
In joyful strains then let us sing
"Advance Australia fair!" Verse 4 Shou'd foreign foe e'er sight our coast,
Or dare a foot to land,
We'll rouse to arms like sires of yore
To guard our native strand;
Brittannia then shall surely know,
Beyond wide ocean's roll,
Her sons in fair Australia's land
Still keep a British soul.
In joyful strains the let us sing
"Advance Australia fair!" Verse 5 Advance Australia Fair (original 1879 verses) The classic 'British' Australian Identity Post World War Two: In the wake of the destruction cause by WW2, many people immigrate to Australia from Europe. 1895 1970 1947: The 'White Australia' Policy is introduced to prevent immigration by people of a non-white European background. William Rickett's Artwork Early recognition of the importance of indigenous Australians to Australia's cultural identity.
Reflects the importance of the environment to ideas of what it means to be 'Australian'.
Early acknowledgment of Australia's destructive and violent past in relation to Australians and the environment. http://learn.stleonards.vic.edu.au/yr9eng/australian-identity/australian-artworks/ 1972: The 'White Australia' Policy is finally ended. 1969: The 'Stolen Generations' Policy of removing half-caste Aboriginal children from their parents ends. Land Down Under VS I Am Australian Nobody calls me a wog anymore
I’m respected as an Australian
An Australian writer
A poet.
But It didn’t just happen
I had to assert myself
As an Australian
As an artist
Stand up and scream it
Point the finger accusingly
Thump my fist demandingly
Asset my identity
Say, ‘hey!’
“Aus tra li a!’
‘Look at me!’
‘Whether you like it or not I am one of you.’
I give as much as I take
And I’ve given and taken a lot
And I’ll take as much as I can
And I’ll give as much as I’ve got. And I said, ‘Australia, hey!’
‘You can call me Komninos!’
That’s right!’
Yes, that’s right, it’s a Greek name
Yes, that’s right, there’s no English translation
Yes, that’s right, it’s my first name
Yes, that’s right, it’s rather unusual
That’s my name
And I guess Australia, we’re stuck with it!
And I said, “hey, Australia’
I’m an ozzie too …just like you
Fair dinkum ridgy didge a dinky die true blue
It’s a fact of history
There’s nothing we can do.
And, Australia,
Whilst I’ve got your attention
I’m a poet
That’s right
A poet I write, I read, I perform, I entertain
I earn my living by poeting
No. no other job
No. not unemployment benefits
A full time writer
A poet with a mortgage
And a wife, and kids
And gas bills, and a tax file number
Just like you

Hey, Australia
We need each other
You need me, and I need you

Hey, Australia
Let’s have a beer

And hey Australia I like you lots
Since you stopped calling me
‘Me wog mate Kevin’
And started calling me
‘The Australian poet, Komninos!’ By Komninos Zervos Nobody calls me a wog, anymore When children are born in Victoria
they are wrapped in club-colours, laid in beribboned cots,
having already begun a lifetime's barracking.

Carn, they cry, Carn … feebly at first
while parents playfully tussle with them
for possession of a rusk: Ah, he's a little Tiger! (And they are …)

Hoisted shoulder-high at their first League game
they are like innocent monsters who have been years swimming
towards the daylight's roaring empyrean

Until, now, hearts shrapnelled with rapture,
they break surface and are forever lost,
their minds rippling out like streamers

In the pure flood of sound, they are scarfed with light, a voice
like the voice of God booms from the stands
Ooohh you bludger and the covenant is sealed. 1977-1984: Advance Australia Fair becomes our national anthem in its more modern form. Australians all let us rejoice,
For we are young and free;
We've golden soil and wealth for toil;
Our home is girt by sea;
Our land abounds in nature's gifts
Of beauty rich and rare;
In history's page, let every stage
Advance Australia Fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing,
Advance Australia Fair. Beneath our radiant Southern Cross
We'll toil with hearts and hands;
To make this Commonwealth of ours
Renowned of all the lands;
For those who've come across the seas
We've boundless plains to share;
With courage let us all combine
To Advance Australia Fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing,
Advance Australia Fair.

Hot pies and potato-crisps they will eat,
they will forswear the Demons, cling to the Saints
and behold their team going up the ladder into Heaven,

And the tides of life will be the tides of the home-team's fortunes
- the reckless proposal after the one-point win,
the wedding and honeymoon after the grand-final …

They will not grow old as those from the more northern States grow old,
for them it will always be three-quarter-time
with the scores level and the wind advantage in the final term,

That pattern persisting, like a race-memory, through the welter of seasons,
enabling old-timers by boundary fences to dream of resurgent lions
and centaur-figures from the past to replenish continually the present,

So that mythology may be perpetually renewed
and Chicken Smallhorn return like the maize-god
in a thousand shapes, the dancers changing

But the dance forever the same - the elderly still
loyally crying Carn … Carn … (if feebly) unto the very end,
having seen in the six-foot recruit from Eaglehawk their hope of salvation Life Cycle By Bruce Dawe This militaristic 'Anzac' identity becomes very important in Australian popular culture, being linked very closely with the 'birth' of an independent, non-British Australian nation. It is celebrated... But it can also be questioned... Gallipoli And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda A more solemn view of the Anzac legacy A focus on the horrific, not just glorious, aspects of the Anzac identity. However, it arguably still commemorates the Anzacs and reveres their role in Australia's past. Crocodile Dundee
Australian Stereotypes Indigenous Voices become more prominent: Australia is established as a convict settlement for Britain. They came in to the little town
A semi-naked band subdued and silent
All that remained of their tribe.
They came here to the place of their old bora ground
Where now the many white men hurry about like ants.
Notice of the estate agent reads: 'Rubbish May Be Tipped Here'.
Now it half covers the traces of the old bora ring.
'We are as strangers here now, but the white tribe are the strangers.
We belong here, we are of the old ways.
We are the corroboree and the bora ground,
We are the old ceremonies, the laws of the elders.
We are the wonder tales of Dream Time, the tribal legends told.
We are the past, the hunts and the laughing games, the wandering camp fires. We are the lightening bolt over Gaphembah Hill
Quick and terrible,
And the Thunderer after him, that loud fellow.
We are the quiet daybreak paling the dark lagoon.
We are the shadow-ghosts creeping back as the camp fires burn low.
We are nature and the past, all the old ways
Gone now and scattered.
The scrubs are gone, the hunting and the laughter.
The eagle is gone, the emu and the kangaroo are gone from this place.
The bora ring is gone.
The corroboree is gone.
And we are going.' by Oodgeroo Noonuccal We Are Going No more woomera, no more boomerang,
No more playabout, no more the old ways.
Children of nature we were then,
No clocks hurrying crowds to toil.
Now I am civilized and work in the white way,
Now I have dress, now I have shoes:
‘Isn’t she lucky to have a good job!’
Better when I had only a dillybag.
Better when I had nothing but happiness by Oodgeroo Noonuccal Then and Now Aboriginal Reconciliation movement begins to gain broad community support. Mind over matter Bidet mate I've got a Donk 1 2 3 1880: Ned Kelly is hanged 1868: Transportation of Convicts to Australia ends. 1850: Victorian Gold Rush begins. 1929: Aboriginal population falls to 80,000 people. 2004: National apology by the Federal Government for the Stolen Generations. A 'Wartime' Australian Identity emerges... The 'modern' Australian Identity starts to solidify... The Australian Identity continues to change and grow... A policy of 'multiculturalism' is adopted instead. This presentation will be following the theme of:
'HOW HAS AUSTRALIA'S NATIONAL IDENTITY CHANGED OVER TIME'. It will present each of the texts we have studied in a chronological timeline of Australia's history, from colonisation to the present day. You will need to revise a range of these texts for the exam. Be prepared to write an essay on what is Australia's 'identity' and how has it changed, drawing upon these texts for evidence. Originally 'Australia' did not possess an identity of its own - it was linked very strongly to Britain. Settlers (including convicts) did not see themselves as 'Australian', but as 'British'. "North and South Head's on Port Jackson", by Joseph Lycett, 1818. Eugene Von Guerard, View of Lake Illawarra with distant mountains of Kiama, 1860 This can also be seen in early colonial artwork, which portrays the Australian landscape in a manner not dissimilar to European settings. Eventually this British- and European-centric perspective started to shift. Australia was not yet a nation, but still a collection of British colonies. Colonists and their descendents still identified primarily as being 'British'. However, a greater appreciation of the 'uniqueness' of Australia and the lifestyle here began to emerge. In particular, the environment and a distrust of authority began to colour the first examples of a new and unique national identity. World War I is seen by many as the period when Australia finally began to separate its identity from Britain and become a proper, independent country (not just a colony). World War II in particular solidified the idea that Australia would have to fend for itself and take its own place in the world - it could no longer rely on Britain for protection. The campaign by Anzac forces at Gallipoli has gained particular importance in Australia's collective self-perception as the time in which a the independent 'Australian' identity was born. Concepts such as 'mateship', 'larrikinism', and the 'digger', with a mix of humour, stoicism, determination, ingenuity, and a distrust of authority and hierarchies, gain prominence. When I was a young man I carried my pack
And I lived the free life of a rover
From the Murray's green basin to the dusty outback
I waltzed my Matilda all over
Then in nineteen fifteen my country said Son
It’s time to stop rambling ’cause there’s work to be done
So they gave me a tin hat and they gave me a gun
And they sent me away to the war
And the band played Waltzing Matilda
As we sailed away from the quay
And amidst all the tears and the shouts and the cheers
We sailed off to Gallipoli

How well I remember that terrible day
How the blood stained the sand and the water
And how in that hell that they called Suvla Bay
We were butchered like lambs at the slaughter
Johnny Turk he was ready, he primed himself well
He chased us with bullets, he rained us with shells
And in five minutes flat he’d blown us all to hell
Nearly blew us right back to Australia
But the band played Waltzing Matilda
As we stopped to bury our slain
We buried ours and the Turks buried theirs
Then we started all over again Now those that were left, well we tried to survive
In a mad world of blood, death and fire
And for ten weary weeks I kept myself alive
But around me the corpses piled higher
Then a big Turkish shell knocked me arse over tit
And when I woke up in my hospital bed
And saw what it had done, I wished I was dead
Never knew there were worse things than dying
For no more I’ll go waltzing Matilda
All around the green bush far and near
For to hump tent and pegs, a man needs two legs
No more waltzing Matilda for me

So they collected the cripples, the wounded, the maimed
And they shipped us back home to Australia
The armless, the legless, the blind, the insane
Those proud wounded heroes of Suvla
And as our ship pulled into Circular Quay
I looked at the place where my legs used to be
And thank Christ there was nobody waiting for me
To grieve and to mourn and to pity
And the band played Waltzing Matilda
As they carried us down the gangway
But nobody cheered, they just stood and stared
Then turned all their faces away And now every April I sit on my porch
And I watch the parade pass before me
And I watch my old comrades, how proudly they march
Reliving old dreams of past glory
And the old men march slowly, all bent, stiff and sore
The forgotten heroes from a forgotten war
And the young people ask, “What are they marching for?”
And I ask myself the same question
And the band plays Waltzing Matilda
And the old men answer to the call
But year after year their numbers get fewer
Some day no one will march there at all

Waltzing Matilda, Waltzing Matilda
Who’ll come a waltzing Matilda with me
And their ghosts may be heard as you pass the Billabong
Who’ll come-a-waltzing Matilda with me? Australia starts to develop a strong, internationally recognisable popular culture and national identity. The 1970s in particular see considerable international success with films such as Crocodile Dundee, songs such as Land Down Under, and brands such as Fosters Beer. Australia as a nation now had to consider what made the country 'unique', and how what image would be portrayed to the rest of the world. The concepts of the landscape/environment and the carefree larrikin are still strong, although their use has changed. Indigenous Australians are for the first time included in the national narrative in a notable (if still stereotypical) way. 1967: Indigenous Australians are given the right to vote. The 'working class' anthem for Australia. It is full of slang, quintessential Australian products, references to drinking and vomiting, and emphasises the 'laid back' qualities of the emerging modern Australian identity. The sanitised, more 'official' view of Australia. It focuses on Australia's history, landscape, Indigenous peoples, and multicultural society. Linking sport to our national identity and what it means to be 'Australian'. Note how religious imagery/references are used throughout the poem to emphasise the almost spiritual importance of the game to people's lives. Sport is linked to people at birth, an inheritance passed down through their family (look at how the children are brought into the poem and the 'love' of the game). This ten verse poem is a testament to a distinctly Australian invention, Aussie Rules football. Football is portrayed as a religion, is food and drink, is the life-cycle itself. Football nourishes the young and renews the old. Its mythology is life-sustaining. It brings "salvation", the punch-line of the poem.

Dawe likens the initiation of a baby to the game when he is held aloft at his first game as spectator like young wrigglers swimming to the surface in the flood of light and sound in the roaring heaven ("empyrean"), of the MCG no doubt. This football has epic and heroic connotations.

Dawe's tone is ever so slightly mocking, but gently so. He respects the strength of football's cultic life and the life-sustaining qualities it offers. He knows it is a life-giving religion offering an initiation, a journey, a wedding, a honeymoon and salvation. He does not deny its worth nor does he fully side with its rituals. He respects the fact that Australian football is a perpetually renewing mythology and although the dancers change, the dance goes on Migrant voices become more prominent, and there is a deeper recognition of Australia's multicultural society. There is a greater acknowledgment of the injustices perpetrated against indigenous peoples and the challenges they face today. Indigenous peoples (including artists) find their own voice, which is often very critical of the manner in which they have been treated throughout history. Note that here, Australia is still closely linked with Britain - the idea that 'we must enter the war because we need to help Britain, we are still linked to them'. Here, Australia and Britain are depicted as equals fighting together against a common enemy who threatens them both. [The classic 'British' Australian Identity] [The traditional 'Pastoral' or 'Bush' Identity] [The 'Wartime' Identity and the beginning of an Independent 'Australian' Identity] [The 'Modern' Australian Identity] [Greater Inclusion of Multicultural and Indigenous Voices] Note also 'The Drover's Boy': Including previously marginalised/ silenced voices.
Challenging previous concepts surrounding Australia's settlement.
The role of Indigenous peoples begins to be acknowledged and finds a place in the national discourse, although indigenous VOICES are still not heard directly. In the Camooweal Pub they talked about
The death of the drover's boy
They drank their rum with the stranger who'd come
From the Kimberley run, Fitzroy
And he told of the massacre in the west
Barest details – guess the rest
Shoot the bucks, grab a gin
Cut her hair, break her in
And call her a boy – the drover's boy,
And call her a boy – the drover's boy. So when they build that stockman's hall of fame
And they talk about the droving game
Remember the girl who was bedmate and guide
Rode with the drover side by side
Watched the bullocks, flayed the hide,
Faithful wife but never bride,
Bred his sons for the cattle run
But don't weep for the drover's boy,
Don't mourn for the drover's boy,
But don't forget the drover's boy. 'The Drover's Boy' Verses 4 and 5 By Ted Egan Reflections The 'Australian Identity' is an ever-changing concept.
An ever-growing variety of voices are becoming part of this identity: no longer just British, but migrant, indigenous, etc.
The evolving and amorphous nature of Australia's national identity is a great strength, allowing it to change with the times and adapt to new circumstances. Since the 1970s, multiculturalism has replaced the 'bushman' as the defining aspect of Australia's national narrative.
A changing voice is necessary in a society that is based upon migration.
Australian society is not perfect: there are many conflicts that it must still come to terms with, and challenges it must overcome. Australia's public identity will need to continue to change and adapt in order to reflect this. 1. A 'British' Identity (very closely aligned to Britain; ignoring difference)
2. A 'Bush' Identity (acknowledging difference; closely tied to the environment)
3. The 'Wartime' Identity (transitioning towards an 'individual' identity, separate from Britain)
4. The 'Modern' (1980s) Identity (an independent identity, with new stereotypes and ideas)
5. The 'Current' Identity (giving voice to diversity; indigenous and multicultural voices) A changing voice and identity will be necessary in order to address and overcome such problems in the future.
The capacity to change and adapt is therefore a great strength. on the changing nature of Australia's Identity... Overview:
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