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Dictatorship and Democracy
Transcript of Dictatorship and Democracy
Rise to Power Recap
To revise the rise to power of.......
Founded the Fascist Party in 1919.
He became Prime Minister of Italy in 1922.
The Fascists adopted the fasces - a bundle of rods and an axe- as a symbol. This represented the authority of Ancient Rome
Rise to Power
March on Rome
Creating a Dictatorship
Name the historical figures....
Why do you think people respected a party which represented authority?
Italy after World War 1:
Over 1 million soldiers were wounded and another 1 million killed. Italy failed to gain land it was promised. Many nationalists were bitter and unhappy with the government.
Inflation and Unemployment:
Prices continued to rise (inflation) during and after the war. The numbers unemployed also increased after the war. The inflation and unemployment caused many riots in the towns and country.
The government was unable to solve the problems and changed regularly between 1918 and 1922.
Fear of Communism:
Many landowners and factory owners supported Mussolini because the feared the spread of communism to Europe. The feared that their land and wealth would be taken from them.
Members of Mussolini's party called Blackshirts were organised into squads. They used violence against their opponents and to increase support for Mussolini.
March on Rome:
In October 1922 Mussolini decided to organise a March on Rome in an attempt to get some fascists included in the new government.
They planned to march on Rome from three different directions.
The Prime Minster de Facta asked the King Victoe Emmanuel to use the army against Mussolini but he refused.
The king then invited Mussolini to form a government.
The March on Rome was little more than a victory parade and a propaganda exercise by Mussolini. Mussolini now wanted to become a dictator.
Rule by Decree
Matteotti - murdered socialist leader
Reclaimed Pontine Marshes
Battle for Grain
Battle for Births
The Lateran Treaty
• The Lateran Treaty 1929 won Mussolini praise at home and abroad from Catholics and helped end a 60 year dispute between the church and the Vatican. Under the terms of the Lateran Treaty: 1. The Pope recognised the Kingdom of Italy and Italy recognised the independence of the Vatican state. 2. The Catholic religion was recognised as the official religion of Italy.
Mussolini Foreign Policy
• Mussolini had a great interest in foreign policy. He wanted to make Italy 'great, respected and feared'.
• He wanted to recreate the glories of the Ancient Roman Empire.
• He wanted to increase Italian influence around the Mediterranean Sea and in North Africa.
Success in the 1920's
• Mussolini liked to portray the image of himself as a man of peace. He signed an agreement recognising the borders between Germany and France. He also signed an agreement that outlawed war as national policy.
Empire in Africa
• Italy already controlled Libya, Somalia and Eritrea. He now wanted to take over Abyssinia (now Ethopia).
• 1935 Italy invaded Abyssinia after a border dispute and with the use of modern weapons like tanks and machine guns the Italian army was victorious.
• The League of Nations impose economic sanctions on Italy but these had little effect.
Mussolini and Hitler
Pact of Steel
Italy and World War 2
• Many soldiers lacked uniforms and had nineteenth century weapons.
• When Germany invaded Poland, Mussolini broke the pact of steel and stayed neutral.
• After Hitler's success against France it seemed Germany would win the war. Mussolini changed his mind and entered the war on the side of Germany.
• The Italian army was very inefficient and Hitler had to send General Rommel to North Afric to help Mussolini.
• Hitler also delayed his invasion of Russia to help Italy in the Balkans. This delay contributed to his failure to defeat Russia.
• Allies invaded Italy in 1943 and Mussolini was removed as Prime Minster by the King Victor Emmanuel.
• Mussolini was captured by Italian guerilla fighters who were opposed to Hitler. He was shot dead and was later hung upside down in Milan for the people to see.
Hitler's Rise to Power
The Nazi Party
• After the war Hitler joined the German Workers Party and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party)
• In 1923 Hitler planned a rebellion in Munich to take over the government of Germany. This was called the Munich Putsch. The rebellion failed and Hitler was imprisoned.
• While in prison Hitler wrote his autobiography ' Mein Kampf' (My Struggle) which outlined his main ideas and beliefs.
• The Nazis demanded the union of all German speaking areas.
• The Nazis demanded the abolition of the Treaty of Versailles.
• Nazis believed that the Germans or Aryans were racially pure and were superior to all other races.
• Nazis believed that Germany must gain lebensraum (living space to the east in Poland and Russia) so they would have the necessary resources for their empire.
• Nazis regarded communism as an evil influence.
Great Depression / Wall Street Crash
• During the 1920's the Nazi party remained small and weak and only won 12 seats in the 1928 election. The Wall Street Crash tipped the balance of scales against the German government (Weimar Republic) and in favour of the Nazi party.
• During the Great Depression in Germany there was high inflation (rising prices) and unemployment. The Weimar government was unable to cope with these problems. Hitler exploited this to gain support.
• Hitler used propaganda effectively to gain support. He used radio, newspaper and posters to increase the popularity of the Nazis.
• He blamed certain groups as being responsible for Germany's troubles- the Jews, Communists, Allies and the Treaty of Versailles.
• Hitler's policies appealed to many different groups. His opposition to the Treaty of Versailles appealed to nationalists. His promise to revive the economy appealed to the unemployed. His anti communism appealed to industrialists appealed to landowners and industrialists who feared the spread of communism.
SA and SS
• The SA was the military wing of the Nazi party. They were led by Ernst Rohm and were also known as the Brownshirts.
• The SS were Hitler's personal bodyguards and were led by Heinrich Himmler.
• The SS and SS used violence against opponents of the Nazis.
• The Nazis used rallies, uniforms, the straight arm salute and the swastika to create the impression of unity and strength.
The number of Nazi seats in the Reichstag increased from 12 in 1928 to 230 in 1932.
• Hitler was appointed Chancellor (Prime Minster) by President Hindenberg in January 1933.
What similarities are there with Mussolini's rise to power
Creating a Dictatorship
Banned Communist Party
Enabling Law - rule by decree
Political Parties Banned
Night of the Long Knives
Combined President and Chancellor
- Der Fuhrer
Propaganda - Nuremberg Rallies
League of German Maidens
Battle for Work
Document Question on Nazi Propaganda
Write an account of The Reign of Terror in France in September 1793 - July 1794
French Revolution Revision