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Christina Leung

on 22 November 2013

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Transcript of Depression

Lack of interest
Low self-esteem
Hopelessness or guilt
Movement changes
Changes in sleep
Changes in appetite
Poor concentration
Loss of energy

No single cause, arises from multiple factors that may occur simultaneously

No observable trigger, may be associated with a life crisis or physical illness

American Psychiatric Association’s DSM (4th Edition): mood disorder, symptoms need to last for at least 2 weeks and at least 5 of the symptoms to occur

Quiz on Myths/Stigmas
1. Depression can go away with positive thinking, friends’ cheering you up, or on its own.

a. True
b. False
5) Depression is a problem in the industrialized, western world and is not a problem in other countries.

a. True
b. False
6) Medication used for treating depression is addictive and prevents appropriate feelings.

a. True
b. False
2) Medication to treat depression changes your brain chemistry.

a. True
b. False

3) If one of your parents is depressed, you are more likely to become depressed.

a. True
b. False
4) Most depressed people go to therapy indefinitely.
a. True
b. False
What is Depression?
Differences in symptoms experienced by males and females which evens out during menopause
Escapist behavior
Alcohol/substance abuse
Controlling/violent/abusive behavior

Persistent sad, anxious or "empty" mood
Loss of interest in activities
Restlessness/irritability/excessive crying

A number of questions asked and medical and psychological tests are usually done

A number of medications and psychological counseling are effective for most people who are seeking treatment for their depression

Majority of medications prescribed are antidepressants such as SSRIs, SNRIs, NDRIs, etc

Oxford Dictionary (American version): a state of "severe despondency and dejection, typically felt over a period of time and accompanied by feelings of hopelessness and inadequacy"

Medical definition: "a condition of mental disturbance characterized by depression to a greater degree than seems warranted by the external circumstances, typically with lack of energy and difficulty in maintaining concentration or interest in life: clinical depression"
Major types of Clinical Depression
Major Depression
Atypical Depression

What Contributes to Depression?
Symptoms of Depression
“Talk therapy”
Conducted as Individual/Group therapy
Focuses on developing strategic ways for the person to cope with daily stressors, the reasons for recurring issues, creating steps to reach attainable goals

Causes and Diagnosis
Treatments for Depression
Psychosocial and Psychological
Genetic Factors

Drug Therapy
To cure certain defunct pathways due to genetic defaults or absence of certain genes (in this case depression is likely to be heritability)
Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
less selective than SSRIs
Function: mainly block the reuptake of neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine
Serotonin: sleep, mood, emotional states
Norepinephrine: learning, memory, physical arousal

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Initial treatment for depression
Safer and have fewer side effects
Function: block the reabsorption (reuptake) of the neurotransmitter serotonin
Serotonin: sleep, mood, emotional states

Norepinephrine and Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors (NDRIs)
Function: blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine
Norepinephrine: learning, memory, physical arousal
Dopamine: reward-motivated behavior

Gene Therapy
Atypical Antidepressants
Sedating, taken in the evening
Used with other antidepressants to ease with sleep
Tricyclic/Tetracyclic Antidepressants
Used for many years tend to have more numerous and more severe side effects
Function: blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine
Prescribed only after SSRIs prescription

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
prescribed as last option of antidepressants
have serious harmful side effects
strict diet due to lethal interactions with foods

Gyms in every residential quad plus Campus Recreation Center free to all undergraduate students
Exercise is a powerful tool for dealing with depression
Triggers new cell growth in the brain, increases mood-enhancing neurotransmitters and endorphins, reduces stress, and relieves muscle tension

Registered dietician at Student Health Service, (631) 632- 6740
What you eat has a direct impact on the way you feel
Reduce your intake of foods that can adversely affect your brain and mood
Don’t skip meals

Off Campus Resources
Suffolk County Response
Response Hotline is available 24 hours a day/7 days a week
(631) 751-7500.

Long Island Crisis Center

Suffolk Country Mental Health Association

National Suicide Prevention Lifeline
Call 24/7----(800)273-8255
Video Games
Can have a calming effect
Video explains how Jane McGonigal made a video game to help relieve her depression

Coping in the College Environment
On Campus Resources
Second floor of the union, next to Starbucks
Involvement with the CHILL & CHOICE Program
Other programs such as Red Watch Band, Safe Space, QPR workshop
Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS)

Second floor of student health services
Phone: (631) 632-6720
Hours: Spring and Fall Semester: Monday to Friday: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Tuesday/Wednesday 5-7 p.m. by appointment
Summer, Intersession & Spring Break-Monday to Friday: 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.
Kathleen Valerio, MS, MCHES - Health Educator, Peer Education Program Coordinator located at SHS/CAPS Building Rm. 213B
Mindful meditation, group therapy, individual therapy

Center for Prevention and Outreach (CPO)
Students can get free ear plugs and sleep information at student health service
Aim for 8 hours of sleep
Depression typically involves sleep problems-whether you’re sleeping too little or too much, your mood suffers.
Many clubs on campus devoted to community service--i.e. Community Service Club, UNICEF, ASBO.
Dr. Stephen Post-"The Hidden Gifts of Helping"
Helping others makes you happier
In a 2009 U.S. survey, people reported that volunteering improved their sense of well-being, lowered stress levels, enriched a sense of purpose in lives, and made people physically happier.
27% of young adults between the ages of 18 and 24 have some form of a diagnosable mental illness, but they show the lowest rate of help seeking behavior.
Nearly 1 in 3 college students reported feeling "so depressed it was difficult to function" at least once in the past year.
1 in 4 young adults (ages 18-24) will experience a depressive episode by age 24.
Over 60 % of college students felt "very sad" at least once in the last year.

College students list depression in the top 10 impediments to academic success.
In the past year, 10% of college students have been diagnosed with, or treated for, major depressive disorder. Nearly 20% have been diagnosed with depression in their lifetime.
Approximately 1 in 2 college students felt "things were hopeless" at least once in the past year.
Pet Therapy
Improve our health
Bring joy and companionship into your life and help you feel less isolated and give you a sense of being needed
Promote touch--decrease levels of the stress hormone cortisol and optimize your immune system by building white blood cells
Risk Factors
Difficult to detect but is disruptive in various ways:
Causes In Males and Females
It is unclear as to what causes gender differences with depression but reasons such as brain chemistry, hormones and life experiences may contribute
Male depression often goes
Failure to recognize depression
Downplaying signs and symptoms
Reluctance to discuss depression symptoms
Resisting mental health treatment
Twice as many females are more likely to experience depression than men
premenstrual problems
postpartum depression
life situations/culture
Full transcript