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The Rise of the Blockbuster, Format Wars and Multiplexes (1972-84)
Transcript of The Rise of the Blockbuster, Format Wars and Multiplexes (1972-84)
the Format Wars Moral Panics and
Home Video LO: Evaluate the reasons behind Moral Panics
LO2: Identify the reasons behind increased censorship in home video Lesson Objective: Identify how the audience expectations shifted 1971: $80,500,000 1972:$134,966,411 1973: $193,000,000 1974: $119,500,000 1975: $260,000,000 1976: $117,235,147 1977: $460,998,007 1978: $159,978,870 1979: $106,260,000 1980: $290,475,067 1981: $209,562,121[ 1982: $435,110,554 1983: $475,106,177 1984: $238,632,124 Defining a Blockbuster? At the 1971 introduction of U-Matic, Sony originally intended it to be a videocassette format oriented at the consumer market. This proved to be something of a failure, because of the high manufacturing cost and resulting retail price of the format's first VCRs But the cost was affordable enough for industrial and institutional customers. 1988: Sony started making VHS Concern: behaviour of a particular group represented as having threat.
Volatility: short-lived. Panics erupt dramatically but are difficult to sustain. Negative consequences for the rest of us.
Hostility: “folk devils” constructed to create a clear division between “them” and “us”.
Consensus: widespread acceptance of the threat posed by this group. Not necessarily reflecting national concern, but the campaigner will be very vocal whilst the opposition will be weak and disorganised.
Disproportionality: wild exaggeration of evidence. Not only the number of people involved but also the scale of the problem Features of a Moral Panic Music halls in Victorian Britain – lawlessness and immorality
Football, 100 years ago – hooliganism
Bicycles, 1890s – cause of chaos and terror
Rock and roll, 1950s – “the Negro’s revenge”
Video Nasties, 1980s
Video Games, 1990s - now
Internet (IM, SNS), 2000s - now Historical Perspectives Alternatively: moral panics involve the construction of “folk devils” that need controlling, which leads to increased social control (ie regualtion: BBFC, ELSPA, etc).
This occurs during periods when powerful groups or the ruling classes face troubled times. The panic then becomes a substitute for the real (and more problematic) social issues. Moral Panic – “a condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges as a threat to societal values and interests: its nature is presented in a stylised and stereotypical fashion by the mass media:
the moral barricades are manned by editors, bishops, politicians and other right thinking people; socially accredited experts pronounce their diagnoses and solutions;
ways of coping are evolved or (more often) resorted to.” (Cohen 1972, p.9)